Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: 1 Lt. Arthur S. Goldstein – April 2, 1945

The name of Second Lieutenant Arthur S. Goldstein (0-558376) appeared in a Casualty List published on May 10, 1945, indicating that he was missing in action in Europe.  Only eleven months later – in an obituary (below) published on April 8, 1946 – was it confirmed and revealed that he was killed in action on April 2, 1945, in Germany.  A member of the 36th Tank Battalion of the 8th Armored Division, his name is commemorated on the Tablets of the Missing at the Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium.

The 36th Tank Battalion After Action Reports for April of 1945 are enigmatic about his fate, only indicating that the Battalion incurred the losses of 1 officer and 5 enlisted men killed, and 3 officers and 33 enlisted men wounded, during that month.  Few specifics are given pertaining to the dates when and locations where most of these casualties occurred, and the mens’ names do not appear in the document.

Consistent with the records of many other American Second World War Casualties who remain “Missing in Action”, the American Battle Monuments Commission’s commemorative record for Lt. Goldstein gives his date of death as April 3, 1946, symbolically reflecting the passage of one year plus one day, from the calendar date on which he was actually killed.

Killed During a Battle In Germany a Year Ago

A Google street view of the Goldstein family’s wartime residence:  200 West 93rd Street, in Manhattan.

Second Lieut. Arthur S. Goldstein, who was reported missing in action on April 28, 1945, was killed during a battle at Neuhaus, Germany, the War Department yesterday notified his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Goldstein, of 200 West Ninety-Third Street.  Lieutenant Goldstein was 22 years old.

A Graduate of Townsend Harris High School, Lieutenant Goldstein was attending City College in 1942 when he entered the Army.  He was a member of Sigma Alpha Mu Fraternity.  In addition to his parents, he leaves two brothers, Richard and Irving, and a sister, Carol.

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Some other Jewish military casualties on Monday, April 2, 1945, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Abrahams, Samuel, Trooper, 406603
England, Royal Armoured Corps
Mrs. Florence May Abrahams (wife), 26 Oakland Grove, Shepherd’s Bush, London, W12, England
Mr. Henry Abrahams (father)
Born 1915
Hasselt (Kruisveld) Communal Cemetery, Hasselt, Limburg, Belgium – Row C, Grave 3
The Jewish Chronicle 4/20/45
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 54

Berkowitz
, Isaac, T/4, 33054832, Purple Heart

United States Army, 77th Infantry Division, 305th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Meyer Berkowitz (father), 634 Jackson St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Jacob, Pvt. Larry M. and Maurice (brothers), 348 Wolf St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1920
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Collingdale, Pa. (?)
The Jewish Exponent 10/13/44, 6/8/45
Philadelphia Inquirer 5/27/45
Philadelphia Record 10/4/44, 5/28/45
American Jews in World War II – 511

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Blume, Nathan J., S/Sgt., 42080027, Purple Heart
United States Army, 91st Chemical Battalion
Mrs. Nessie Blume (mother), 517 West 3rd St., Wilmington, De.
Born 1/17/14
Jewish Community Cemetery, Wilmington, De.
American Jews in World War II – 73

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Brids, Martin R., PFC, 31294009, Purple Heart (at Luzon, Philippines)
United States Army, 6th Infantry Division, 1st Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Anna Brids (mother), 55 Broadway, Quincy, Ma.
Born 1924
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot F, Row 16, Grave 101
American Jews in World War II – 152

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Danowitz, Jack M., 2 Lt., 0-868103, Flight Engineer, Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 499th Bomb Group, 877th Bomb Squadron
Mr. Kive Danowitz (father), Betty, Hubert (?), and Samuel (sister and brothers), 1271 Grant Ave., New York, N.Y.
MACR 13763; Aircraft: B-29 42-24650; “Jug Haid II”, “V 2”; Pilot: 1 Lt. Kenneth H. Dustin; 9 crewmen – no survivors
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Glendale, N.Y. – Block WC, Section 5, Line 24, Grave 22, Workmen’s Circle Society
Casualty List 5/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 295

According to co-pilot Robert B. Merz’s biographical profile at Fold3.com, JUG HAID II was, …”hit with flak from anti-aircraft artillery while over the target area, and crashed in Ituka, near Kawasaki City in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan.”

This image of JUG HAID II’s nose art, possibly painted by Jim Howley (from Newark, New Jersey) is from his biographical profile at Sallyann Wagoner’s website (B-29.org) covering the history of the B-29 Superfortress. 

Documentation about Lt. Danowitz’s Missing in Action status includes the following “Record of Casualty”, recorded by and through the efforts of Major David I. Cedarbaum.  This document is one of 78 such records about Jewish casualties compiled by Major Cederabuam, as part of his overall efforts to document the service of Jewish airmen in the 20th Air Force.  He envisioned the postwar creation of a book about this subject.  Unfortunately, this never came to fruition. 

Based on the handwriting, this document seems to have been completed by W.D. Bary on Major Cedarbaum’s behalf.  The text states:  “Lt. Kenneth H. Dustin was the Airplane Commander.  The day prior to their final mission they were on another mission in which they dropped out of formation into danger by circling a plane that had ditched until rescue came for it.  On the April 2nd mission which [was] a night mission, four planes failed to return.  2 collided in the darkness and none were rescued & 2 were battle-damaged over the target & went down.   Conjecture can fashion a picture out of this information, but these are the only facts. – W.D. Bray”

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Dolsky, Jack, Sgt., 16124052, Radio Operator, Air Medal, 5 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 13th Air Force, 5th Bomb Group, 23rd Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Helen D. Bram (sister), 2137 East 70th St., Chicago, Il.
MACR 14289; Aircraft: B-24J 44-70148; Pilot: 1 Lt. William C. Robison; 10 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines
Casualty List 5/11/45
American Jews in World War II – 97

Sergeant Dolsky’s aircraft, piloted by 1 Lt. William C. Robison, vanished on April 2, 1945, after a morning take-off from Green Island, for a strike mission to the Truk Islands.   Ten days later, Major Christopher Goldsbury, Commander of the 72nd Bomb Squadron, recorded that, “Airplane 42-70148 was never seen after take off, and no trace was ever found of either the airplane or its crew.”  Though the MACR records no specific reason for the plane’s loss, the document does mention the presence of, “Severe frontal areas between Green Island and Truk Islands.” 

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Epstein, Sampson M., Pvt., 32675682, Purple Heart
United States Army, 8th Infantry Division, 28th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Ethel Isaacson (brother in law and sister), 25 Harris St., Rochester, N.Y.
Born Rochester, N.Y., 4/4/23
Stonewood Avenue Cemetery, Rochester, N.Y. – Beth Hamedresh Hagodel Section; Buried 1/16/49
http://www.rootsweb.com/~nymonroe/cem/vets-britton.htm
Casualty Lists 5/3/45, 6/9/45
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle 4/24/45
American Jews in World War II – 303

Ezra, Albert, S 1C, 7077834, Seaman, Purple Heart
United States Navy
Mr. and Mrs. Isaac and Rosa Ezra (parents), Jacob and Louis (brothers), 160 Havemeyer St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 6/4/22, New York, N.Y.
Served in New York National Guard from 1/13/41 to 8/2/41
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 6/7/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Fordham, Samuel Bernard, LAC, 2248679 (in Holland)
England, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Racheal Fordham (parents), Clapton, London, England
Born 1922
Venray War Cemetery, Limburg, Netherlands – V,F,13
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 196

Glassman, William, PFC, 33122472, Purple Heart (Pacific Theater)
United States Army, 242nd Engineer Combat Battalion
Mrs. Miriam Glassman (wife), 2600 Briggs Ave., New York, N.Y.
Casualty List 5/31/45
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
American Jews in World War II – 322 (?)

Goldstein, Jacob, PFC, 32963601, Purple Heart
United States Army, 25th Infantry Division, 161st Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Rebecca Goldstein (mother), 483 Hopkinson Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Max Goldstein (brother), 1607 Prospect Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1914
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot F, Row 12, Grave 27
Casualty List 5/3/45
American Jews in World War II – 328

Goldwater, James J., PFC, 36299626
United States Army, 382nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion
Mr. Myer Goldwater (father), 1235 Superior Ave., Sheboygan, Wi.
Born 1923
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot J Row 11, Grave 72
American Jews in World War II – 584

Harar, Mordechai Shimon, Pvt., PAL/11401
England, Pioneer Corps
Died in Israel from illness
Ramleh 1939-45 Memorial, Ramleh, Israel
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 246, as “Hahar, Sh. M.”; CWGC as “Harar, Mordechai Shimon”

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Herstam, Gordon Alan, Ensign, 0-164083, Navigator, Purple Heart
United States Navy, USS Goodhue
Killed by a Japanese suicide plane while acting as beach-master
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan and Lillian G. Herstam (parents), 2583 Overlook Road, Cleveland Heights, Oh.
Mrs. Ruth (Herstam) Goettinger (sister)
Born 1924
Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. – Section 34, Grave 4369
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, April 22 & 23, 1945, March 22, 1949
American Jews in World War II – 489

This photo of Ensign Herstam’s matezva is by FindAGrave contributor Michael [Randy] Walsh

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Katz, Harry, PFC, 32410987 (Pacific Theater)
United States Army, 242nd Engineer Combat Battalion
Mrs. Lena Katz (mother), 9 Roberg Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1914
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/29/45
American Jews in World War II – 358

Lebhar, Jacques, Soldat (AC 21 P 72422), Croix de Guerre (at Belheim, Germany)
French Army
“In spite of a violent bombardment which had put horses and a large part of his section out of action, he gave care to his wounded comrades, and carried his severely wounded Section Chief under a heavy burst of fire.  Returning to his post at the moment when the Chief himself was wounded, he reassured his comrades and kept them in order by telling them: “Those who remain, at my command.” / Fallen gloriously at the Battle of the Somme.”
(Malgre un violent bombardement qui avait mis hors de combat kes cadres et une grosse partie de sa Section, à donne des soins à ses camarades blessés et transporté sur son dos, sous une rafale intense, son chef de Section grièvement blessé.  Revenu à son poste au moment où le Chef se Section lui-même était blessé, a rassuré ses camarades et les maintenus en ordre en leur disant: “Ceux qui restant, à mon commandement.” / Tombé glorieusement à la bataille de la Somme.)
23eme Infanterie, 9eme B.M.I.

Born Oran, Algeria, 4/30/19
Place of burial unknown
Livre d’Or et de Sang – 158

Levin, Mota Veniaminovich (Левин, Мота Вениаминович), Technician-Lieutenant [Техник-Лейтенант], Technician (Flight) [Техник Звена]
U.S.S.R., Military Air Forces – VVS, 311th Assault Aviation Division, 925th Assault Aviation Regiment
Mrs. Anna Veniaminovna Ginsburg (sister)
Born 1918

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Levy, Jules, 2 Lt., 0-2057961, Navigator, Air Medal, Purple Heart, 10 missions
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 497th Bomb Group, 869th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Rose Levy (mother), 1342 East 18th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 12/18/21, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Selman Field 44-G
MACR 13764; Aircraft: B-29 42-93883; Pilot: 1 Lt. Edwin F. Dietzel; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/9/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

The crew of B-29 42-93883 (nickname – if it had one – unknown) – lost during a mission to Tokyo – have never been found.  As recorded in the MACR, the “Aircraft took-off at 2100, 2 April 1945, Saipan, and was never seen or heard from since.”

Perhaps – supposition, on my part – the aircraft crashed at sea.

The photographic portrait below – of Lieutenant Levy – is one of 21 such images featured in Noah and Sadie G. Finkelstein’s 1951 book, Memorial Album – Dedicated to the Boys of the 20th Air Force

Akin to the report about Lt. Danowitz’s (above), Major Cedarbaum created a report covering Lt. Levy, as reported by Chaplain Hangse.  With no information about the plane and crew, the report simply states, “Bombing mission to Tokyo.  Did not return, no one saw it or heard from it, and no further information has ever been received.  Place of casualty is unknown.”

Biographies of the servicemen accompanying the photographic photographs in the Finkelstein’s book.  Typically written by the serviceman’s parents and (understandably; naturally; humanly) somewhat hagiographical, they are invaluable in terms of genealogy, and, in the way they invoke the aura of the 1930s and 1940s.  Jules’ biography, written by his mother, is presented below:

JULES LEVY

(December 18, 1921 – April 2, 1945)

Had Jules Levy lived his normal life-span, his absorbing passion for music, with special emphasis on the art of piano playing, would eventually have guided his career.  To understand the underlying motives in a young man’s mind and heart which stir him to creative tasks is to understand the main-springs of his character, and the finest tribute that can be paid to Jules’ memory is the attempt to picture those creative strivings in him.

He was born in Brooklyn. N.Y. on December 18, 1921.  There he graduated from Public School 197, James Madison High School, and religious school at Temple B’nai B’rith.  He studied music at City College, and later did clerical work for the government in Washington before entering the service.

He was promoted from the ranks to receive flying training and graduated from Salem Field as a navigator on a B-29. He was lost April 2, 1945, after having flown ten missions.  He had earned the Purple Heart Award.

His mother reveals that he was essentially of a reserved nature with an inner refinement, and very normal with respect to his liking of sports and other activities.  His letters home reflected a certain wisdom beyond his years, no doubt, from the grim experiences that the boys at the front encountered in their day to day living – with the unknown always a very present factor.  Throughout it all, however, Jules did not forget his real interest in life, his real passion – music, and he allowed himself the luxury, mental and spiritual, of dreaming what would be after the war.

Jules’ thoughts about music were not only creative, but they were mature.  He knew that we do not live by bread alone.  The fact that millions were fighting for something – different things to different men – was proof that each man needed to believe in some living principle.  Justice, democracy and those related concepts, were some of the things men believed in and fought for, even as he.

Beyond that, for Jules, were the creative things identified with music.  Music, like the other arts, opened up new worlds for humanity, and set standards by which to live as well.  He did not live to fulfill himself in this field, but at least he knew what he wanted, and what he wanted is a fitting memorial to the fine spirit which he possessed.

He is survived by his mother Rose Levy and a sister

______________________________

Liebgott, Jean (AC-21P-76880) (at Plobsheim, Bas-Rhin, France)
France, Armée de Terre, 2eme Bataillon de Chasseurs
Tué au combat
France, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Jouef
Born 8/2/02
Place of burial unknown

Lorber, Lawrence M., PFC, 35059641, Purple Heart
United States Army, Americal Division, 182nd Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Harry and Myrtle Lorber (parents), 1103 Parkwood Drive, Cleveland, Oh.
Mrs. Mildred Cohn (sister)
Born 1925
Place of burial – unknown
http://www.clevelandvetsmemorial.org/GCVM_Honor_Roll_Profile.asp?Infantry Division=1679
Cleveland Press, May 9, 1945, August 30, 1948
American Jews in World War II – 494

Mantell, William, M/Sgt., 12061488, Purple Heart (on Okinawa)
United States Army
Mr. Leon Mantell (father), “Clair, Gertrude, and Sam”, 1446 President St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1913
Place of burial – unknown
Casualty List 5/28/45
New York Times Obituary Memorial Section 3/31/46, 4/6/47
American Jews in World War II – 387

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Marcus, Joseph, S/Sgt., 39284367, Radio Operator, Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 13th Air Force, 5th Bomb Group, 23rd Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Sadie T. Marcus (mother), 1302 Gordon St., Hollywood, Ca.
Born 8/7/23
MACR 14252; Aircraft: B-24M 44-41853; Pilot: 2 Lt. Arthur M. Zipse; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, San Diego, Ca. – Section I, Grave 192; Buried 4/27/50
American Jews in World War II – 49

S/Sgt. Marcus’ Liberator, piloted by 2 Lt. Arthur M. Zipse, vanished during an observation flight to the northwest sector of the Negros Island, in the central part of the Philippine archipelago.   As reported in MACR 14252, at 1400 / I, the aircraft was contacted by two F4U Corsairs of Marine Air Group 14 while in the area assigned for the mission – Negros Island – and at that time, was not in difficulty.  Forty-five minutes later, at 1445 / I, the plane was again contacted by MAG 14 F4Us, with Lt. Zipse reporting that his destination was Bacolod, the capital city of Negros Island.  

Two hours later, at 1600 / I, MAG 14’s fighters were unable to make contact with the Liberator.   

Though the MACR sheds no further light on the fate of the crew, a record at FindAGrave for navigator 2 Lt. Donald C. Schwerin reveals more about the aircraft’s fate:  “For some time after the crewmen were reported missing in action, hope was maintained that eventually they might be found alive on an isolated south Pacific island.  It was discovered later, however, that the plane had crashed into a mountain in what was then Japanese held territory.  All the crewmen had been killed.”

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Marks, Delbert Harold, 2 Lt., 0-34916, Fighter Pilot (Test Pilot)
United States Marine Corps, 9th Marine Air Wing, Marine Air Group 91, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland
Aircraft: F4U-1D Corsair, Bureau Number 80771; Crashed near Nickle Mine, Lancaster, Pa.
Mr. Sol Marks (father), Cpl. Seymour Marks and Miss Shirley Marks (brother and sister), 12325 Saint Clair Ave., Cleveland, Oh.
Born 1921
Place of burial unknown
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, April 4 & 7, 1945
American Jews in World War II – 494

Marshak, Lawrence, PFC, 563809, Purple Heart
United States Marine Corps, 6th Marine Division, 4th Marine Regiment, 3rd Battalion, L Company
Mr. Sam Marshak (father), 180 East 40th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Place of Burial Unknown
Casualty List 6/15/45
American Jews in World War II – 389

Mosbacher, Stephen Sigmund, S/Sgt., 35554027, Silver Star, Purple Heart
United States Army, 8th Armored Division
Dr. and Mrs. Emil and Rose Mosbacher (parents), 617 Eleanor Ave., Cleveland, Oh.
Born Nurnberg, Gemany, 1923
Aufbau 4/27/45, 5/18/45
Netherlands American Cemetery, Margraten, Netherlands – Plot I, Row 11, Grave 9
American Jews in World War II – 495

Nirenberg, Alvin Harold, S 2C, 7140825, Seaman
United States Navy, Ammunition Ship (name unknown)
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan and Ruth Nirenberg (parents), 29 Park Ave., Mount Vernon, N.Y.
Mr. Leon Veeder (cousin), New Rochelle, N.Y.
Born 1926
Mount Hebron Cemetery, Flushing, N.Y. – Block 51, Reference 14, Section F, Line 11, Grave 6 – Nova Radomsker Society
Mount Vernon Daily Argus 4/5/45
American Jews in World War II – 400

Rosenberg, Bernard, SM 3C, 8099343, Signalman, Purple Heart
United States Navy
Mr. Sam Rosenberg (father), 273 Amboy St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/29/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Schiff, David, PFC, 42058131, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army, 97th Infantry Division, 387th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Morris Neidich (friend), 449 Powell St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Tablets of the Missing at Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium
Casualty Lists 5/18/45, 1/16/46
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Scholem, Dan, Driver, PAL/30212
England, Royal Army Service Corps, Number 2, Commando
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo and Marianna Scholem (parents), Brussels, Belgium
Born 1924
Ravenna War Cemetery, Piangipane, Ravenna, Italy – IV,C,1
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 156, 258, as “Sholem, Dan (Robert)”; CWGC as “Scholem, Robert”

Schreer, Schlomo, Pvt., 16727
England, Palestine Regiment, 1st Battalion
Ravenna War Cemetery, Piangipane, Ravenna, Italy – IV,C,2
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 156, 257, as “Shrier (Shrir), Shlomo” and “Screer, S”; CWGC as “Schreer, S.”

Schwartzstein, Georges (AC-21P-153111)
France, Francs Tireurs et Partisans Français
Concentration camp; Décédé en deportation (Mauthausen, Austria)
From Paris, France
Born 7/10/19

Sigal, Isaak Peysakhovich (Сигал, Исаак Пейсахович), Guards Senior Lieutenant [Гвардии Старший Лейтенант]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 379th Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment, Military Unit / Military Post 29867
Commanding Officer – Communications
Born 1921
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume VIII – 478 [Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том VIII 478]

Wohlauer, Wolf Hans, T/5, 39699670, Purple Heart (in Germany)
United States Army, 8th Infantry Division, 49th Armored Infantry Battalion
Mrs. H.S. Wohlauer (wife), 1141 South Cochran Ave., Los Angeles, Ca.
Born 1914
Netherlands American Cemetery, Margraten, Holland – Plot D, Row 10, Grave 16
American Jews in World War II – 57

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Second Lieutenant Norman Dubb and First Lieutenant Edward M. Rudofsky were the navigator and co-pilot of B-29 44-69752 (“T square 15“), an aircraft of the 873rd Bomb Squadron of the 498th Bomb Group (20th Air Force) which was commanded by 1 Lt. William E. Filbert.  The aircraft’s loss is covered in MACR 13761, which includes the enigmatic statement, “Aircraft AAF # 44-69752 left this station at approximately 2100, 1 April 1945 on a bombing mission over Tokyo, Japan.  At time of this report the aircraft is 12 hours overdue.  No information whatsoever has been received from the aircraft since its departure.”

The aircraft disappeared during a mission to Tokyo, having been shot down by anti-aircraft fire.   There were no survivors from the crew of 11.  Information about the bomber’s loss (and similar records concerning other American warplanes lost over Japan) can be found at aomorikuushuu.jpn.org

The crew was buried in collective grave 322 (seen below, in an image by KCK, in Section 81 of the Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, on January 19, 1949.

Dubb, Norman, 2 Lt., 0-702155, Navigator
Mr. and Mrs. Henry and Lillian (Kasan) Dubb (parents), 4642 Saint Elmo Drive, Los Angeles, Ca.
Born in Maryland, in 1919
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Rudofsky, Edward M., 1 Lt., 0-795484, Co-Pilot, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Mrs. Louise G. Rudofsky (wife), 309 East 34th St., Savannah, Ga.
Casualty List 5/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 89

This photo of Lt. Rudofsky, provided by Louis Zacks, appears in his biographical profile at the National World War II Memorial website.

______________________________

Prisoner of War

Spivack, Maxwell, PFC, 12110922 (in Germany)
United States Army, 9th Infantry Division, 60th Infantry Regiment
POW – Camp unknown
Mr. Martin Spivack (father), 241 East Moshulu Parkway, Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1924
Casualty List 5/27/45
American Jews in World War II – 452

Wounded in Action

Davis, Jack, Sgt., C/125033
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps
Mr. Leon Davis (father), 3259 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Born Vancouver, British Columbia, 10/12/18
Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties – 92

Goldstein
, Julius, T/5, 33177105 (at Kerama, Okinawa)

United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob and Rose Goldstein (parents), 2630 S. 9th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1912
The Jewish Exponent 7/6/45
Philadelphia Record 6/26/45
Philadelphia Bulletin 6/26/45
American Jews in World War II – 525

Panitz, Irwin Arthur, S 1C, 7121120, Seaman, Purple Heart
United States Navy, USS Henrico
WIA; Experienced multiple burns; Returned to duty
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Jack and Cecile Panitz (parents), 1432 Crotona Park East, Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1925
American Jews in World War II – 403

Weiss, Leonard, Sgt., 33085239, Purple Heart (in Germany)
United States Army
Mrs. Betty E. Weiss (wife), 632 S. 55th St. (or) 5127 Whitaker Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1920
The Jewish Exponent 5/4/45
Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Record 4/28/45
American Jews in World War II – 559

Wolf, Robert Raymond, Pvt., 563969, Purple Heart
United States Marine Corps, 3rd Marine Division, 9th Marine Regiment, 3rd Battalion, K Company
Mr. John Wolf (father), 11 Vreeland Ave., Passaic, N.J.
American Jews in World War II – 259

Other Incidents

Returned after aircraft landed in Soviet-controlled territory…

Robin, William H., S/Sgt., 14132611, Flight Engineer, Air Medal
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 454th Bomb Group, 739th Bomb Squadron
Aircraft landed at Pecs, Hungary; Presumably returned, with fellow crewmen, to American forces via Soviet Military
Mrs. Rose Robin (mother), 241 Cherokee Road, Nashville, Tn.
MACR 13475; Aircraft: B-24L 44-49927; Pilot: F/O George R. Buitts; 10 crewmen – all survived
American Jews in World War II – 568

According to a massive database compiled by the Soviet Transports research team (specifically, “Western-Built Aircraft in Soviet & Eastern Block Service” (March 2017)) intact B-24L 44-49927 eventually – (unsurprisingly!) – passed into Soviet Air Force service.  The plane probably served in the 25th Aviation Regiment – Long Range (25 АП ДД) at Balbasovo (an air base in Belarus) which was redesignated the 203rd Aviation Regiment (203 АП) in December of 1945.  

Last known sighting of a still-missing fighter pilot…

Rosenbloom, Sidney Eugene, 2 Lt., 0-2059842, Fighter Pilot, Air Medal
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 325th Fighter Group, 318th Fighter Squadron
Mrs. Harriet Selma (Silverstein) Rosenbloom (wife)
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Joshua and Bessie Rosenbloom (parents), 1235 North Hanley, St. Louis, Mo.
Born Saint Louis, Mo., 8/10/22; Died 9/18/11
Name appears in MACR 13641
Made last known sighting of Capt. Harry A. Parker (son of Mrs. Hannah (Craig) Parker, 8 Grove St., Milford, N.H.), who was flying P-51D 44-14462, “Albemarie Pippin”, during a strafing mission to vicinity of Vienna, Austria
Capt. Parker is listed on the Tablets of the Missing at Florence American Cemetery, Florence, Italy.  He received the Silver Star and Purple Heart
American Jews in World War II – 215

References

Chiche, F., Livre d’Or et de Sang – Les Juifs au Combat: Citations 1939-1945 de Bir-Hakeim au Rhin et Danube, Edition Brith Israel, Tunis, Tunisie, 1946

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Finkelstein, Noah and Sadie G., Memorial Album – Dedicated to the Boys of the 20th Air Force, Noah and Sadie G. Finkelstein, Los Angeles, Ca., 1951

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

Canadian Jews in World War II
– Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948


Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume VII
[Surnames beginning with all letters of the alphabet], Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 2002

South African Jews in World War Two, Eagle Press, South African Jewish Board of Deputies, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1950

 

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: PFC David E. Glatter – February 12, 1945

One theme among many in this ongoing series of posts about Jewish military casualties of the Second World War – whose obituaries appeared in The New York Times – is that these news items typically pertain to casualties incurred from late 1944 through the war’s end, in 1945.

In that sense, this post – for Private David E. Glatter of Brooklyn – is no exception.

A member of the 1255th Engineer Combat Battalion of the 6th Cavalry Group, David was one of the battalion’s eleven soldiers who lost their lives (51 others having been wounded) on February 12, 1945, during the liberation of Vianden, Luxembourg.

These soldiers are commemorated by a memorial located at the “View Point” of Vianden Castle, the text of a plaque there (shown below) reading:

VETERANS OF THE 1255TH COMBAT ENGINEERS
HONOR THE MEMORY OF
JACK BENDER              DAVID GLATTER
NATHAN CORLEY           EDWARD GRIFFIN
CYREL EVANOW            MARION HANSON
IRA GAMBILL                 CHARLES NANCE
VINCENT GAMBINO       HAROLD SMITH
WILLIAM TIFF
WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES ON FEBRUARY 12, 1945
AT VIANDEN
SI HUN D’LIEWE GELOOSS FIR D’FRAIHEET
                                                     FEBRUARY 12, 1995

News items about David appeared in The New York Times (below) on September 25, 1945, and, the Oswego Palladium Times on 9/29/45.

Hero Died of Wounds Suffered in Luxembourg

PFC David E. Glatter, son of Mr. and Mrs. Harry H. Glatter of 921 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, died Feb. 14 of wounds suffered two days before in military operations in Luxembourg.  He was 19 years old.

For heroic achievement on Feb. 12 in Luxembourg he received posthumously the Bronze Star Medal.  During bitter fighting in the town of Vianden, the citation said, for a part of the time he stood alone on the river bank and delivered telling fire on a group of the enemy only 100 yards away.  On another occasion, when his platoon was pinned down by a German machine gun, he took his automatic rifle into the street and made a bold effort to silence the enemy gun.

Before entering the Army two years ago he was a student at Oswego State Teachers College and represented the school at inter-scholastic debates.

______________________________

A 2017 Google Street View of the Glatter family’s wartime residence: 921 Washington Avenue, in Brooklyn.

David is buried at the Long Island National Cemetery, in Farmingdale, N.Y. (Section J, Grave 13890)  A photograph of his matzeva, by Ronzoni, appears below.  His name appears on page 322 of American Jews in World War II

______________________________

Some other Jewish military casualties on Monday, February 12, 1945, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Epstein, Frank H., Sgt., 32143761, Purple Heart
United States Army, 38th Infantry Division, 152nd Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Elizabeth Hewson (mother), 15 Morgan St., Rochester, N.Y.
Mrs. Irving Acker, Mrs. Arnold Van Scooter, and Mrs. Evelyn Epstein (sisters); Eugene T. Oliver (?)
Born 1916
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot D, Row 6, Grave 38
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle 3/24/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Goldberg, Sydney, Pvt., S/14679732 (in Northwest Europe)
England, Royal Army Service Corps
Mr. and Mrs. Mark and Esther Goldberg (parents), Cricklewood, Middlesex, England
35 Warwick Lodge, Shoot-up Hill, London, NW2, England
Born 1926
Reichswald Forest War Cemetery, Kleve, Germany – 45,E,15
The Jewish Chronicle 4/27/45
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 92

______________________________

Greenfield, Alvin, ARM 3C, 7084420, Aviation Radioman, Purple Heart
United States Navy, Patrol Squadron VP-130
Mr. Jesse Greenfield (father), 303 Berriman Road, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Aircraft: Lockheed PV-1 Ventura, Bureau Number 49464; Pilot: Lt. Richard V. Umphrey; 6 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines
Casualty List 4/1/45
http://www.dtic.mil/dpmo/
http://www.vpnavy.org/vp2_1945.html
American Jews in World War II – 335

The document below (from Fold3.com), from VP-130’s War Diary for February of 1945, covers the loss of Lieutenant Umphrey’s Ventura.  Like innumerable Allied aircraft lost during the Second World War, no wreckage or crewmen were ever recovered, and no definitive cause of the plane’s loss could ever be determined.  However, the entry does suggest that, “The most likely possibilities are that either engine trouble resulted in a forced landing at sea, or the plane was shot down in the Zamboanga area, on the southwest tip of Mindanao, where there was a known concentration of AA.”  (Anti-Aircraft)

Besides Aviation Radio Man Greenfield, the crew (their towns and cities of residence, as listed in the 1946 publication Combat Connected Naval Casualties, World War II, by States. 1946. U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard) consisted of the following:

Umphrey, Richard Vern Lt. – Iola Marie Umphrey (wife), Route 17, Box 1390, Milwaukie, Or.
McCaslin, James Walter Ens. – Mollie McCaslin (mother), Box 471, Chillicothe, Tx.
Banks, Auckland Marston AOM3C – Ethel Elizabeth Banks (mother), 3205 Plymouth Court, Tampa, Fl.
Dillon, O.M. ARM3C – Anna Elizabeth London (mother), 1400 Evans Ave., Fort Worth, Tx.
Murie, Louis Arnold AMM2C – John Murie (father), 73 South Adolph St., Akron, Oh.

______________________________

The three maps below, from Google Maps, show the presumed location of the aircraft’s loss at successively larger scales. 

This map shows the island of Borneo, and the Philippine archipelago.  Though not labeled on this map, Zamboanga, at the southern tip of Mindanao, is about half-way between the Philippine Islands, and the northeast tip of Borneo, at the “boundary” between the Sulu and Celebes Seas.

“Zooming in” more closely.  Zamboanga – labeled on the map – is west-southwest of Davao.

…and even closer, with Zamboanga at the lower center of the map.

______________________________

Since Lockheed’s PV-1 Ventura is presumably vastly less well known than other World War Two aircraft, such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, P-51 Mustang, or Supermarine Spitfire (assuming that there remains room for any kind of historical memory in the Twitterfied, Facebooked, Snapchatized world of 2018…but I digress…or do I?…!), an image of two PV-1s is shown below.  Though these aircraft are serving in VB-135 in the Aleutian Theater of War (not VP-130, in the Western Pacific) the photo is nonetheless a excellent representative image of the general appearance of the PV-1 – per se.  Apparent are the plane’s radial engines, twin fin and rudder (a la the North American B-25 Mitchell or Handley Page Hampden), dorsal turret mounting twin fifty-calibre Browning machine guns, two further Browning fifties in the upper nose, and, the two-place cockpit.  Not visible is the plane’s bomb-bay, which was capable of carrying bombs or a torpedo.

The picture is from the Warbird Information Exchange, which features a series of superb images of American warplanes in the Aleutians.  The image also appears in Scrivner and Scarborough’s PV-1 Ventura in Action, which notes that the pair of aircraft were photographed in July of 1944, while en route from Paramushiro to Attu.

The number “10” on the forward and rear fuselage is the aircraft’s individual squadron identification number, while the “936” on the rear fuselage – probably in white – is the last three digits of the aircraft’s Bureau Number, “48936”.

______________________________

Hoffman, Harvey S., 1 Lt., 0-1108018
United States Army, 460th Engineer Depot Company
Mrs. Mary K. Hoffman (wife), 45 Tiemann Place, New York, N.Y.
Rhone American Cemetery, Draguignan, France – Plot B, Row 7, Grave 23
American Jews in World War II – 346

Kadison, Saul B., 1 Lt., 0-1304906, Silver Star, Purple Heart
United States Army, 80th Infantry Division, 317th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Lena Kadison (mother), 1223 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. (Also remembered by “Fae”…)
Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – Plot E, Row 5, Grave 19
Casualty List 6/10/45
The New York Times Obituary Memorial Section 2/12/46
American Jews in World War II – 353

Kalman, Abraham, Pvt.
1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, Disciplinary Commando
Born Czechoslovakia, Mala Tarna, okres Sevljus; 11/1/19
http://www.army.cz/acr/vuapraha/db/index.php

Laine, Colin, Pvt., 13120129
England, The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment), 2nd Battalion
Mr. and Mrs. Mordecai and Simma Eisland (parents)
Mr. R. Eisland (uncle), New York, N.Y., USA
Born 1923
Taukkyan War Cemetery, Taukkyan, Rangoon, Myanmar – 27,C,11
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 116

Leventon
, Alexandre (AC-21P-75446) (at Mulhouse, Haut-Rhin, France)

France, Armée de Terre, 21eme Régiment d’Infanterie Coloniale
Born Odessa, U.S.S.R., 4/29/21
Place of burial unknown

Libman, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (Либман, Михаил Александрович)
Hero of the Soviet Union
Guards Major [Гвардии Майор], Commander (Artillery) [Командир (Артиллерия)]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 1st Ukrainian Front, 5th Guards Army, 7th Artillery Corps, 3rd Artillery Division, 637th Light Artillery Regiment, 15th Light Artillery Brigade
(Wounded 9/26/43)
Born 1921, Rostov-on-Don, Rostov Oblast, Soviet Union
Kule Cemetery, Częstochowa, Poland – Grave 21

Libman, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (Wikipedia, at Либман, Михаил Александрович)
Under Fire – 358
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V – 56

Ozer, Albert Milton, Pvt., 32189224, Purple Heart
United States Army, 34th Infantry Division, 34th Reconnaissance Troop
Mr. and Mrs. Jehile and Anna Ozer (parents), Benjamin and Miriam (brother and sister), 258 Buffalo Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Parents postwar address: 4250 West Flager St., Miami, Fl.
Born 1917
Florence American Cemetery, Florence, Italy – Plot F, Row 3, Grave 28
Casualty List 4/3/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Raffel, Arthur G., Sgt., 42043388, Purple Heart
United States Army, 94th Infantry Division, 376th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel and Henrietta Raffel (parents), Joseph (brother), 3418 Gates Place, New York, N.Y.
Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Center Moriches, N.Y.; Buried 4/3/49
Casualty List 3/20/45
New York Times Obituary Memorial Section 4/1/49
American Jews in World War II – 409

Robbins, Fred B., T/Sgt., 15104767, Flight Engineer, Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 6th Bomb Group, 39th Bomb Squadron
Mr. Phil Robbins (uncle), 1901 Alvason St., Cleveland, Oh.
Mrs. Anne C. Robbins (sister-in-law); Florence, PFC Arnold, and David (sister and brothers)
Born 1922
MACR 12049; Aircraft: B-29 42-24842; Pilot: 1 Lt. Bernard A. Casaurang; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer – 2/28/45, 8/8/45
American Jews in World War II – 497

The Casaurang crew’s Superfortress was not actually lost in combat.  During a sea-search mission, the right wing caught fire after the #4 engine developed mechanical problems.  The bomber crashed into the sea, about 55 miles northwest of the Marianas Islands of Saipan and Tinian.  Other aircraft made extensive searches of the area, but there were no survivors.  

The plane’s crew list is shown below:

______________________________

Rosenheim, Charles Leslie, Major, 172292, Military Cross (in Western Europe)
England, Welch Regiment, 4th Battalion
Mrs. Annelies Rosenheim (wife), Golders Green, Middlesex, England
Wife also at 73 Meadway, London, NW11, England
Mr. and Mrs. Ludwig and Martha Rosenheim (parents), Prestwood, Buckinghamshire, England
Born 1913
Reichswald Forest War Cemetery, Kleve, Germany – 51,F,5
The Jewish Chronicle 2/23/45
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 20, 150
We Will Remember Them (Volume II) – 98

Simpson
, Roger Henry, Major, 160270

England, Royal Artillery, 8th Field Regiment
Mrs. Patricia Simpson (wife), St. Marylebone, London, England
Mr. and Mrs. Emden and Lily (Burton) Simpson (parents)
Born 1912
Taukkyan War Cemetery, Taukkyan, Rangoon, Myanmar – 27,E,16
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 162

Tankelis
, Abel Berovich [Танкелис, Абел Берович] Junior Sergeant [Младший Сержант]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 16th Lithuanian Rifle Division, Army Trophy [captured enemy equipment] Team

Died of wounds at 80th Autonomous Medical Battalion, Priekule, Latvia
Mr. Ber Tankel (father); Miss Mina Berovich (sister)
Born 1920, in Kursk
Possibly brother of Junior Sergeant [Младший Сержант] David Berovich Tankelis [Давид Берович Танкелис], of 249th Rifle Regiment, 16th Lithuanian Rifle Division
Road to Victory – 304 (gives name and rank as “Tankel, Abel”, “Sgt.”)

Servicemen in Polish People’s Army, during “Operation Pomeranian Wall”

Balasz, Rafael, Pvt. (at 2nd Infantry Division Military Hospital)
Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Jozef Balasz (father)
Born Wilczunk (Siedlce), Poland, 1909
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 5

Bluzer, Aleksander, Pvt. (at Field Hospital 5171, Walcz, Poland)
Polish People’s Army
Mr. Jozef Bluzer (father)
Born 1922
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 99

Fuks
, Dawid, Cpl. (at Miroslawiec, Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Markus Fuks (father)
Komarno, Poland 1929 (?)
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 22

Gerszanowicz
, Leon, Sergeant Major (at Rudki, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 6th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Lazarz Gerszanowicz (father)
Lithuania, Ostrowiec (d. Vilna); 1916
Walcz Military Cemetery, Poland
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 98

Hister
, Gecel, Cpl. (at Zabinek, Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Jakub Hister (father)
Radymno (d. Jaroslaw) [Podkarpackie?], Poland, 1919
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 30

Kujawski
, Michal, WO

Polish People’s Army, 1st Infantry Division
Mr. Szlomo Kujawski (father)
Born 1920
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 42

Ligenberg
, Samek, WO (at Zabieniec, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Szmuel Ligenberg (father)
Poland, Mazowieckie, Warsaw; 1923
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 46

Liport
, Ilia, WO (at Zlotow, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 23rd Heavy Artillery Regiment
Mr. Lazar Liport (father)
Odessa Oblast, Odessa; 1922
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 46

Margules
, Zachariasz, Pvt. (at Borujsk, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Hersz Margules (father)
Chelm (d. Lublin) [Lubelskie?], Poland, 1912
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 101

Orlinski
, Aron, Cpl. (at Miroslawiec, Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Szlomo Orlinski (father)
Poland, Podlaskie, Bialystok; 10/25/13
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 52

Pinczewski
, Jozef, First Sergeant (at Miroslawiec, Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Izrael Pinczewski (father)
Poland, Mazowieckie, Warsaw; 12/13/13
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 54 (Also listed as “Piczewski, Josef”, on page 54)

Schiffer Zeglarski
, Jakub, 2 Lt. (at Rudki, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 16th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Jakub Schiffer Zeglarksi (father)
Rudnik near San (d. Nisko), Poland, 7/23/97
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 61

Spiro
, Mojzesz, First Sergeant (at Wloclawek, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 3rd Infantry Division, Disciplinary Company
Mr. Jakub Spiro (father)
Gorlice, Malopolskie, Poland, 1909
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 63

Szakies
, Jan, Pvt. (at Borujsk, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Jan Sazkies (father)
Kabosze (d. Braslaw), Poland, 1913
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 98

Szubert
, Kazimierz, WO (at Nowe Laski (Walcz), Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 6th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Ignacy Szubert (father)
Zaluze (d. Zbaraz), Poland, 1921
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 68

Wizner
, Leopold, Pvt. (at Miroslawiec, Zachodniopomorski, Poland)

Polish People’s Army, 5th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Jozef Wizner (father)
Oswiecim, Malopolskie, Poland, 1924
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 75

References

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Leivers, Dorothy (Editing and Revisions), Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division, 1941-1945, Avotaynu, Bergenfield, N.J., 2009

Meirtchak, Benjamin, Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armies in World War II: I – Jewish Soldiers and Officers of the Polish People’s Army Killed and Missing in Action 1943-1945, World Federation of Jewish Fighters Partisans and Camp Inmates: Association of Jewish War Veterans of the Polish Armies in Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1994

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

Morris, Henry, Edited by Hilary Halter, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945 – An Addendum, AJEX, United Kingdom, London, 1994

Scrivner, Charles L., and Scarborough, Capt. W.E., USN (Ret.), Lockheed PV-1 Ventura in Action, Squadron / Signal Publications, Carrollton, Tx., 1981

Shapiro, Gershon (Compiler), Under Fire – The Stories of Jewish Heroes of the Soviet Union, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 1988

Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V [Surnames beginning with А (A), Б (B), В (V), Г (G), Д (D), Е (E), Ж (Zh), З (Z), И (I), К (K)], Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 1998

1255th Engineer Combat Battalion

1255th Engineer Combat Battalion – Traces of War – Memorial 1255th Engineer Combat Battalion (at Tracesofwar.com)

American War Memorials Overseas – 1255th Combat Engineer Battalion Monument (at uswarmemorials.org)

 

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Double Jeopardy Remembered – The Reminiscences of a Jewish Prisoner of War

My recent blog post, covering Sergeant Ralph Gans of the Bronx, included a list of Jewish soldiers who were military casualties on January 31, 1945.  However, that list was not complete.    

The names of two American airmen appear in this “separate” post, because one of those aviators – Leonard Winograd – recounted the events of his capture, interrogation, and imprisonment some three decades later, in an essay: “Double Jeopardy What an American Army Officer, a Jew, Remembers of Prison Life in Germany”. 

He and his eleven fellow crew members were captured after their B-24 Liberator bomber failed to return from a mission to Moosbierbaum, Austria, on a day which marked the loss of at least thirteen 15th Air Force B-24s.  They were members of the 512th Bomb Squadron of the 376th (“Liberandos”) Bomb Group (15th Air Force).  The loss of their aircraft, B-24H 41-28911, piloted by 1 Lt. Robert E. Andrus, is covered in MACR 12066, and Luftgaukommando Reports ME 2776 and 2777.  The entire crew of 12 survived, with two men evading capture.

Rabbi Winograd’s essay was published in the American Jewish Archives in April of 1976, and reprinted in The Jewish Veteran three months later. 

It is presented here, in its entirety. 

Rabbi Winograd’s story is one that is marked by elements of irony and humor (well, of a sort…) and more importantly, insights about the challenges and dangers (imagined, and also very genuine) of being a Jewish prisoner of war of the Germans.  Let alone, the challenges of simply being a POW – “per se”. 

Rabbi Winograd accorded notable attention to the predicament of fellow crewman T/Sgt. Gerald Einhorn, a substitute crew member who was filling in for the Andrus crew’s own (ill) ball turret gunner that January Tuesday.  This was particularly so in light of Einhorn’s defiance of the crew’s German captors (which reaction elicited an intriguing comment from another POW) in the context of Einhorn’s status as a refugee from Hitler.    

Though Einhorn was never seen again after being wounded during a strafing attack by P-47 Thunderbolt fighters, he did survive the war.  The owner of a hardware store in Brooklyn, he died in 1983, at the young age of 61.  His wife, Gertrude (“Gittel”) (Yaskransky) Einhorn, passed away in 2005.    

One wonders if Gerald Einhorn ever read Rabbi Winograd’s story.  I suppose the answer to that question can never be answered.  What can be answered and verified is that Einhorn was, as recorded by Rabbi Winograd, from Eastern Europe; born in Romania in July of 1922, his parents were Samuel and Mathilda.  Their fate is another question, the answer to which is also unknown.  

In a larger sense, Rabbi Winograd’s account is one of the innumerable stories comprising the great body of writing – some fiction; some non-fiction; some, “some”-where between – concerning the experience of prisoners of war during the Second World War.  In itself, this literature is but one facet of the vast body of writing covering the experience of prisoners of war, of all military conflicts, “in general”. 

What is notable about Rabbi Winograd’s account is that was published relatively “early”, compared to the bulk of such accounts (whether books or articles), which began to appear before the public – at least in the United States – roughly commencing in the mid- to late 1980s. 

What is equally notable is that it addresses – albeit through the eyes of one man, over the limited time-frame of four months (well, very much can happen in four months!) – the implications of being a Jewish prisoner of war in the European Theater, in light of the ideological priorities, social and geopolitical aims, and actions of Germany (and to a lesser extent its allies) concerning the Jews.    

In that regard, it one among many such stories.  But, how many?   

From reviewing a very wide variety of sources – books and articles; archival and published; print and digital – I’ve arrived at the following approximate numbers of Jewish soldiers who, having been captured by Axis forces, survived the Second World War as POWs. 

United States Army (European, Mediterranean, and Pacific Theaters): 1,530
United States Army Air Force (European, Mediterranean, and Pacific Theaters):  1,310
United States Marine Corps and Navy: 80
Australia (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 80
Canada (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 70
England (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 415
Greece:  70
South Africa (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 360
The Yishuv (pre-1948 Israel): 1,280

(A caveat:  The above totals do not include Jewish prisoners of war from Belgium, France, and the Netherlands.  They also do not include the extraordinarily few Jewish soldiers of the Polish, and particularly the Soviet armed forces, who survived German captivity.  This must be viewed in the context and nature of Germany’s war against the Soviet Union, one aspect of which was the calculated inhumanity of German treatment of Soviet POWs.) 

In any event, many if not most of these stories were probably never told; even fewer were probably recorded.  Of those that were recorded, how many have been preserved?    

Well…a few. 

And this is one.    

A link to a PDF transcript of Rabbi Winograd’s story follows this post’s list of references. 

But first, begin with a series of photographs of the Andrus crew…

______________________________

The following image, from the 376th Bomb Group wesbite, also appears in Rabbi Winograd’s book Rabies is Jewish Priests, and depicts his crew after their arrival in North Africa in August, 1944, while en route to Italy.  

The men are the following:

Standing, left to right:

Bob Andrus (pilot)
Chappy Campbell (Radio operator)
Len Winograd
Bob Ruetsch (gunner)
Tom Sabatino (gunner)

Kneeling, left to right:

Bob Cartier (bombardier)
Lane Carlton
Carl Rudisill (gunner)
Bob Corbett (flight engineer)

The aircraft – Mary Ellen – was named after the wife of aircraft commander Paul George (not in the photo), who does not appear in the photo.

The same image as above, as it appears in Rabbi Winograd’s book.

Mary Ellen, B-24J 42-50960, squadron number 85, did not survive the war.  The aircraft was lost on November 11, 1944, while taking part in a high-altitude bombing mission to Mezzocorona, Italy. 

As described by 1 Lt. Eugene B. De Fillipo, who was flying on the plane’s right wing, Mary Ellen – piloted by 1 Lt. Walter W. Mader with a crew of ten – was last seen over the Adriatic Sea, about half way between Ancona and the Croatian coastal island of Dugi Otok.  The two planes entered clouds at 0925 hours.  Fifteen minutes later, when Lieutenant De Fillipo emerged into clear sky, Mary Ellen was missing.  The incident is covered in MACR 9858.

______________________________

Another image of the Andrus crew, also from the 376th BG website.

Standing, left to right:

Robert F. Corbett – Flight Engineer
Robert J. Cartier – Bombardier
Robert E. Andrus – Pilot
Leonard Winograd – Navigator

Kneeling, left to right:

Carl P. Rudisill – Nose Gunner
Robert D. Ruetsch – Ball Turret Gunner
Thomas G. Sabatino – Tail Gunner
Emory L. Carlton – Waist Gunner
Robert G. Campbell – Radio Operator

______________________________

This image of the Andrus crew – taken just after their return from a mission on December 14, 1944 – is from the collection of Robert Ruetsch, seventeen of whose photographs are present at his photo page on the 376th BG website

Standing, left to right:

Unknown
Leonard Winograd – navigator
Donald H. Boulineu – Pilot
Robert E. Andrus – Co-Pilot
Unknown

Kneeling, left to right:

Unknown
Unknown
Robert D. Ruetsch – Ball Turret Gunner
Unknown
Unknown

According to Robert Ruetsch’s comments, “these other men were probably part of the crew that day”:

Robert F. Corbett – Flight Engineer
Robert J. Cartier – Bombardier
Carl P. Rudisill – Nose Turret Gunner
Thomas G. Sabatino – Tail Turret Gunner
Emory L. Carlton – Waist Gunner
Robert G. Campbell – Radio Operator

The Liberator which serves as the backdrop B-24H 42-95285, squadron number 22, otherwise known as Red Ryder.  The plane was lost during a mission to Linz, Austria, on November 7, 1944.  Piloted by 2 Lt. Phillip R. Scott, the plane (based on my interpretation of the MACR) either crash-landed on Vis Island, or ditched in the Adriatic Sea.  In any event, four of the plane’s eleven crewmen were killed.  Three of the plane’s four engines suffered a simultaneous loss of power coupled with mechanical problems: #1 engine was “out”, #2 engine “ran away”, and a third engine had become uncontrollable.  The incident is covered in post-war high-numbered “fill in” Missing Air Crew Report: # 16500. 

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Here is another view of the Andrus crew, also from the Ruetsch photo collection.

Standing, left to right:

Robert J. Cartier
Robert D. Ruetsch
Leonard Winograd
Unknown
Robert F. Corbett
Unknown

Kneeling, left to right:

Donald H. Boulineau
Thomas G. Sabatino
Carl P. Rudisill
Robert G. Campbell
Emory Lane Carlton

Like Red Ryder and Mary Ellen, the B-24 in this image also did not survive the war.  The plane B-24H 42-51183, was nicknamed Bad Penny, squadron number 27.  The aircraft was lost during a mission to the Moosbierbuam Oil Refineries in Austria on January 31, 1945.  Piloted by 1 Lt. Wante J. Bartol, nine of the bomber’s ten crew members survived the mission.  The sole casualty was bombardier 2 Lt. Leonard N. Tocco, who was murdered (shot) by German soldiers almost immediately after safely landing by parachute, despite offering no resistance to capture.

The incident is covered in MACR 12067.  It is also covered in Luftgaukommando Report ME 204A.  Regarding the latter, Luftgaukommando Reports suffixed “A” probably pertained to American air crews from which at least some crew members were known by the Germans to have evaded capture.  This would be consistent with the fate of the Bartol crew, for of the plane’s nine survivors, eight seem to have escaped, with T/Sgt. Mark D. Striman (radio operator) being taken prisoner.

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Another image from Rabbi Winograd’s book:  “A group of the neighborhood children in Italy come out to play in the snow, January 30, 1945.  It was the first snow in southern Italy in some 25 years.  The two without hats are a future rabbi and a future university president.  This was the day before our bomber went down.  Who would have guessed that in less than 24 hours, our crew would be missing in action.”

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Another image from the Ruetsch collection, showing Lieutenants Boulineau, Winograd, and Cartier, in front of their tent. 

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An excellent portrait of Rabbi (then, Lieutenant) Winograd, in front of a 512th Bomb Squadron B-24.  The squadron insignia – a skull superimposed on a propeller and cross-bones – is as visually striking as it is symbolic.   This picture accompanies Rabbi Winograd’s article in the April, 1976 issue of the American Jewish Archives, but does not appear in either Rabies is Jewish Priests, or, the reprint of the AJA article in the July, 1976 issue of The Jewish Veteran.

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A uniform patch of the 512th Bomb Squadron insignia.

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The following account, from the 376th BG website, is Lt. Andrus’ story of the loss of B-24H 41-28911.

“With three engines feathered, the B-24’s flight characteristics approximate that of a large, round ball of lead dropped from a great height.”

Much to our surprise on the afternoon of Jan 30, 1944 [should be 1945] I found that my crew was scheduled to fly the next day’s mission. Under the normal rotation we should not have been scheduled for at least two more days. Further, we were to fly the number 7 (slot) position which was usually reserved for newer, less experienced crews. Adding to the confusion was the fact that we not going to fly our usual aircraft but were to take the brand new B-24H that the squadron had received a few days earlier.

All my efforts to find out what was going on were non productive. Sqd Ops finally told me that they had been directed by Group Operations to schedule me by name to fly that aircraft in the slot on tomorrows mission and I would probably find out why at the morning briefing. Very strange!

At the morning briefing I learned that the 376th would be the last group in the bomber stream, the target was Moosbierbaum and the flak would be intense. It quickly became apparent that since the 512th box was tail-end Charlie in the group formation, I would be the last ship over the target. It wasn’t until we arrived at the hardstand where our aircraft was parked that I finally found out what was going on.

Both the Gp Ops officer and the Gp Intel. officer were waiting for me and introduced me to my newest crew member: an aerial photographer. I was then briefed that my mission was to bomb the target with the 512th and when they rallied off after they dropped their ordinance I was to make a 180 degree turn and return to the IP and make another run over the target. It seems they suspected the oil refinery had long since been destroyed and was being camouflaged to appear operational. Our second run over the target would hopefully provide bomb damage photography taken before they had an opportunity to reemploy their camouflage. I was then advised that we had been selected to fly this mission because we were experienced and had one of the most competent navigators in the Group, Len Winograd.

The aircraft we were to fly was basically an “H” model that had been modified at the factory during its manufacture. The nose turret was eliminated and a huge, 7-lens mosaic camera which incorporated the bomb sight was installed in its place. The photographer had received over 150 hours of experimental training on a similar camera that had been installed in a modified B-24D back in the states. Although I was introduced to him at the hardstand, I am unable to remember his name.

He and Flight Officer Durham, the bombardier who was receiving his mandatory checkout flight brought the number of crew members on this flight to twelve.

The flight to the target was normal; the aircraft performed beautifully and fuel consumption was less than normal. There was absolutely no indication of the problem we were later to encounter. During this portion of the flight I briefed the crew on intercom about our additional mission. When I finished, there was a moment of silence and then a voice on the intercom said, “hey, I ain’t gonna go unless I get extra mission credit.” This brought on lots of laughter.

As I recall, the bomb run was flown at 23,000 feet and although the flak was very heavy, we received only minimum damage. After the bomb drop, the flight made a descending right turn to clear the area as rapidly as possible. I maintained 23,000 feet and flew a racetrack pattern back to the IP. Once we were established on the track back to the target I turned control of the aircraft over to the photographer who was using the bombsight as a view finder for the camera. While the flak continued to be heavy on this run, we received minimal battle damage.

After completing the photo run I made a right descending turn and picked up the heading for return to base. Almost immediately the right outboard engine started to fail. Fuel pressure fluctuated wildly and although the manifold pressure gauge indicated we were not getting any power, I was unable to control the engine RPMs. This left me no choice but to shut down the engine and feather the prop.

A check of the fuel sight gauges indicated plenty of fuel for the return to base. Despite this, all engine instruments clearly showed the loss of the engine was due to fuel starvation. Just as I made the decision to unfeather the engine, the same problem began with the right inboard engine. Using the feathering button to keep the RPMs from exceeding the max allowable we tried everything we could think of to overcome the power loss. Cross feeding the fuel tanks, swapping the electronic control boxes for the turbo superchargers all failed to correct the problem.

With two engines on the same side feathered, the flying characteristics of a combat configured B-24 left much to be desired. Forced to begin a descent in order to maintain minimum flying speed, I directed the crew to jettison everything in the aircraft not required to maintain flight. While I still held out hope that we would have sufficient altitude to make it over the Alps, the left inboard engine failed inexactly the same manner.

With three engines feathered, the B-24’s flight characteristics approximate that of a large, round ball of lead dropped from a great height. It was very depressing to know that we had all that fuel on board and not be able to access it.

By this time we were down in a box canyon of the generic Alps in northern Yugoslavia and descending through 9,000 feet. Since there was no alternative, I directed the crew to bailout. This was in the vicinity of Bijac, Yugoslavia. I was immediately captured and remained a POW for the duration of the war.

Liberation and return to allied military control came on April 29, 1945. In the latter part of May, 1945 while undergoing processing and rehabilitation at Camp Lucky Strike, LeHavre, France, I was interviewed and debriefed by US Army Intelligence agents. It seems that an identical camera-equipped B-24H had been delivered to the 98th Bomb Group at Lecce and it went down on its first mission under the same circumstances that we had experienced. This raised suspicions of sabotage and an investigation was conducted. It revealed that during manufacture someone had installed pressure-sensitive check valves in the main fuel lines to each engine. The valves remained inoperable until someone removed a small easily accessible pin to activate them. They were designed to remain open while climbing and maintaining constant altitude and close, shutting off the fuel supply, when encountering increasing barometric pressure i.e. a descending aircraft. The saboteur was apprehended and the valves were removed from the remaining four camera-equipped B-24s.

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And, here is Rabbi Winograd’s story…

DOUBLE JEOPARDY
American Jewish Archives
April, 1976

What an American Army Officer, a Jew,
Remembers of Prison Life in Germany

Dr. Winograd is a member of the Jacob Greenfield Post in McKeesport, Pa.  He’s also the rabbi of Temple B’Nai Israel.

They were always things you overheard, things not meant for your ears, not intended for you, not directed at or about you.  But the words were in the air.  You could hear them at night in that tension before sleep released you from longing.  I remember hearing two British or South African pilots talking about a British prisoner whose name may have been Gordon.

“Didn’t you know?  He’s a Jew – a Russland Jew?”

“After the war, we’ll fight them.”

I will never know whether he meant that, after the war, England (or South Africa) would have to fight the Jews or the Russians.  I heard one of us referred to as a “Kike” because he had argued with the German guards.  His name was Einhorn.  He was a refugee from Hitler.  Hungarian Jews were dying at the rate of 12,000 a day at Auschwitz.  Our own belly gunner was in the hospital with pneumonia so Einhorn, Hungarian Jew, had flown with our crew on the day we bailed out.  Einhorn was unknown to me before this mission because at our base in Italy, officer flying personnel rarely got to know the enlisted flying personnel socially except, of course, for members of one’s own crew.  Einhorn was apparently a fellow with enough guts to tell off the men who captured him or who were taking him on a train to yet another place.  This frightened the other men who had been captured with Einhorn, as they were not personally involved in World War II, even if they, too, were prisoners of war in Germany.  To the Jew this was deeply personal – no matter how hard you tried to deny it.

More of the One Than of the Other

We had bailed out over Yugoslavia after bombing a synthetic oil refinery somewhere in Austria.  We came down in a part of Bosnia in which there was a great deal of guerilla warfare.  Two of the crew were picked up immediately by the Yugoslav Tito Red Partisans.  They were back at our base in Italy in five days.  [Aerial Gunner S/Sgt. Carl B. Rudisill, and, Observer F/O Edward J. Derham]  One of these two men was riding along on a first mission just to see what happens in combat.  [Derham]  He evaded capture, which indicates how much training, experience, intelligence briefings, and knowledge of escape procedure can accomplish.  About five of the crew came down in about the same place and were picked up almost immediately.  I think that Einhorn was in that group, along with the crew member who had griped to me that Einhorn was like “those Kikes from Brownsville.”  [Name in MACR…]  I was reassured that Einhorn was not like me.  Another four men or so must have come down in another place because they were captured and brought in after the first group had left for Germany.  I was the last one captured and I joined this group at a barracks in the mountains.  My capture came after three days and two nights of hiding by day and traveling by night, avoiding all people and also wolves and bears who were after me and had me badly frightened.

The idea was that you hid in the daytime and traveled at night, heading always south until one came to a city or a penguin, in which case you had apparently overdone things again.  But, while I was holed up in the snow, with tracks from my boots leading to the hole and no tracks leading from the hole, several German soldiers came by, looking for me, I assume.  They had great big dogs with them.  They walked within six feet of my hole and never bothered to investigate because, after all, no one wants to fill out all those forms, I guess.

Well, I saw a crucifix on a building and since I had heard about the priests and nuns in Belgium who believed in God and would help Jews trying to evade capture, I decided to chance it.  I stood up.  (I had been crawling on my belly because according to the movies, that way you became a smaller target.)  I started walking toward what I assumed would be a church.  Very soon I realized that it was no church at all.  In those moments when I still thought it was a church, I had decided that all I would ask for was some hot water.  I was freezing.  Just some hot water.  Very soon I realized that this was no church at all.  It was a cemetery chapel.  Some little children had seen me and had run to get the German sentries.  Two German sentries.  Well, Germans are nothing if not thorough.  Imagine, two guards in a cemetery!

The guards asked me, Americano?”  I answered, “No.”  They asked me, “Italiano?”  I answered, “Americano.”  I felt that since Germany and Italy were allies, I had better hot tell them that I was Italian since I wanted them to like me.

They took me to meet an officer.  It might have been a headquarters or an officers’ club or something.  I was in a daze.  But I remember that they immediately brought in an interpreter who right off the bat asked me if I had ever been to Kaufman’s in Pittsburgh.  From the few words I had said, he had spotted my Pittsburgh brogue.  The official questions came in correct order – name, rank, serial number, religion.  I answered them all to the best of my ability, and when I told them that I was a Jew, I sensed excitement in the room.  I am very perceptive that way.  All the mouths were wide open now.

Then I remember that even though they kept referring to us as fellow officers, in my case it was not quite the same thing.  The major (who was a German major in Bihacs in the winter of ‘45?) claimed to be from Vienna and told me that he had many Jewish friends (my knee jerk reaction being that one was supposed to beware of Gentiles who said that some of their best friends were Jews – as if it would be safer to be with a Nazi who said that some of his worst enemies were Jews!)

Studying Journalism

Meanwhile, they had insisted that I take off some of my wet clothes.  This, I assumed, was for the purpose of torturing me.  Then they brought me some hot soup – poison no doubt!  Anyhow, the soup was about the best I ever ate in my life.  It probably did not have the antibiotic potential of chicken soup, but no soup I ever ate tasted as good.  As for the clothes, they merely wanted to dry them off.  I had recalled the Geneva Convention when I created that sensation by telling them what my religion was, and so I realized that I had better not talk anymore.  So I would not talk.  The translator had gotten angry with me at one point when I answered a question before he had translated it, despite the fact that I knew no German at all, but, as I explained, German was a lot like Yiddish.  Sometimes I could understand the questions without waiting for the translation.  I imagine that a lot of German anti-Semitism came from translators who feared that if they were not needed in Yugoslavia, they might have to go to the Russian front where it was just as cold and hot besides.  In wartime, that could be hazardous.

One example of how being a Jew affected response to interrogation: When I was asked what I was studying in college, I was ashamed to tell the Germans that I was in the School of Business Administration because in those days anti-Semites thought that all Jews were rich and were in business.  So I told them that I was studying journalism.  (This only shows how naive I was.  Now they could accuse Jews of trying to control the media!)

But from that time on, I was intent on hiding within my group.  None of my crew ever discussed this with me nor did I tell them what was on my mind.  I always sought the back of formations, covered my face with my hands like a criminal whenever I was visible to Germans, and tried very hard not to be conspicuous.

Our select group soon included a South African pilot with the fantastic name of Paul Kreuger [actually, Lieutenant Peter Krueger (207053)] and there was also a South African observer whom we had seen get shot down one day as Ukrainian SS stood over me with whips in their hands while I cowered on the floor in hopes that they wouldn’t use them.  (No congregation really frightens me.)  We were escorted by three old men who were given rations for our trip to “someplace.”  They kept our cigarette rations for themselves, but did give us enough food and a lot of organic fertilizer.  We knew that they were stealing our cigarettes, but we were like Lolita with Humbert.  They were all we had.  They were kind of old, and we were extremely young, so we carried the guns and they carried the rations.  After all, if we escaped, could they eat guns!  They wanted to be sure that they would have enough to eat.

The boys from the 512th Squadron of the 376th Bomb Group were carrying German rifles while their guards carried the heavy packages of food.  We called them Superman No. 1, Superman No. 2, and Sleeping Jesus.  The names had come about so innocently!  Bobbie Johnstown was a nineteen-year-old co-pilot who had the face of a Gerber model.  We had to carry him everywhere because of his frozen feet.  He couldn’t walk.  He could run like hell when we were being bombed by our own planes, but he couldn’t walk, so we carried him.  Well, it was one of those moments when our guards were totally exhausted.  Bobbie had referred to them as “Supermen.”  When we gasped, he asked, “Well, aren’t they?”  It was all very funny, especially that part about Sleeping Jesus.  I, of course, as the Jew in residence, never referred to the Alsatian guard as sleeping Jesus.  I left that for the other crew buddies, it wasn’t for me to say.  Anyone could tell that I must have been a Jew.  I didn’t joke about Jesus.  See why it is dumb to object to the Gentile who says that some of his best friends are Jews.  If you are any kind of a Jew at all, everyone knows it.  For one thing, you don’t joke about Jesus.

On the trains, our guards were supposed to protect us from the German populace.  One of these guards, Superman No. 1, had an uncle in Milwaukee.  This guard told a German passenger combat soldier that I was a Jew.  The soldier gave me a cigarette without comment and without any show of anger or hatred.  And cigarettes were very scarce in that time and place.

Big Generals and Jews

Finally, we arrived at Frankfurt on the Main.  We went directly to the cellar of the railroad station to sweat out a night bombing.  There we met a Russian prisoner, a Pole, and several Frenchmen.  We joked that the Russian had surrounded Vienna, but the German army had apparently broken his siege and captured him.  Seriously, though, it was quite touching.  The Russian, on learning that I was an American, took out a silver cigarette case and held it close to his body so that I could not see what was in it.  What was in the silver cigarette case?  About a half dozen cigarette butts.  For some reason, he did not want me to know that he was giving me the largest cigarette butt he owned.  It could have meant many things, but it was wonderful to taste the appreciation of an ally.

A few minutes later, euphoric because of the swig of wine which I had gotten from the newly captured French prisoner, I opened my heart a fraction of an inch to him.  I really thought that all Frenchmen were libertarian, egalitarian, and fraternal, like in Warner Brothers war films.  So I told this brand new comrade in incarceration that I was a Jew and that I was afraid that they would kill me.  Then he let me know that he could not believe that I was a Jew because I was a soldier.  Just about then the German who was guarding the Russian, the Pole, and the Frenchmen became chummy and philosophical.  Being in a cellar during an air raid does that for you.  War, he said, was no good.  We all agreed.  Then he went on to refine his statement.  War, he now said, was good only for the big generals and the Jews.  It had been different at the prison camp for French prisoners in Vienna.  A French POW there had been in Poland and had seen the Nazi death camps where Jews were exterminated, and he had told me what was going on.  He probably would not have agreed that war was good for the Jews.

Finally, we left the cellar of the railroad station and went to an air force interrogation center near Frankfurt.  I was put in solitary confinement.  We all were, I think.  They made the room so hot that I could not stand it and so removed most of my clothing.  As soon as I did that, they made it so cold that I had to put all the clothing back on again.  This happened several times over several hours.  Then I was taken to interrogation where, for the first time, the fact that I was a Jew became a weapon in the hands of the Germans.  By now I had been a prisoner for about a month.

The interrogator was a one man Mutt-and-Jeff act.  You know, in prison work, one detective is the good guy and one is the bad guy.  Well, this was the good guy.  The bad guy would bet me if I did not play along with the good guy.  It worked like this: I refused to give any information other than my name, rank, and serial number.  I refused because the Geneva Convention promised that no one was allowed to require more than such information of me.  All he wanted was for me to tell him one thing to establish the fact that I was not an underground terrorist or, as he put it, a “bandit.”

Sorry.  No luck.

So, he went on to tell me how he had had good childhood friends who were Jews, but who had gone to America because of the Nazis.  He, of course, was no Nazi.  Perhaps I knew his friends?  He told me their names.  No, I did not know them.  Well, the officer explained, that was too bad because he certainly had nothing against Jews, but the Gestapo was in charge of all suspected underground terrorists and, unless I talked, he would have to turn me over to the Gestapo.  He advised me that they would not be as considerate of my feelings or my safety as the German Air Force would be.  If I could get myself registered as an air force prisoner of war, the Luftwaffe, the German air force, would be responsible for me.  Otherwise, the Gestapo would get me.  This was the second big fact about being a Jew in this situation.  It gave the Germans an additional weapon for interrogation of prisoners.  I told him that I could not do what he wanted me to do.  He then had a photographer brought in who did a frontal mug and profile with numbers.  This, I was told, was for the Gestapo.  The interrogator’s last words to me were that he felt very sorry for me.  He really did not think that I was an underground bandit, but I had been very foolish and had not helped him at all.

I went back to my room thinking or really feeling kind of, “So, this is how it is all going to end,” and being afraid only that I would not act like a big boy when they tortured me.  I had been well indoctrinated with the idea that if you revealed anything at all other than your name, rank, and serial number, they would never let you out of the interrogation center.  Apparently, those interrogation centers existed only for the sake of the occasional blabbermouth who would give them one small piece of a puzzle which they could fit into a larger puzzle where it would mesh with the gleanings from other blabbermouths.  Anyhow, they would have no further use for me because I would not tell them anything.  I could always say that I had met the enemy and “my head was bloody but unbowed” – except that it wasn’t even bloody.  It was cold and it was sweaty, but it was not at all bloody.

After an eternity, which may have been only fifteen minutes, there was a knock at the door.  A German NCO with a smile on his face said, “Lt. Winograd we are sending a movement of prisoners today to a Red Cross camp and would like you to be in command of the group.”  He told me how many hundreds of officers and NCOs would be involved.  I agreed to do it.  He explained also that, looking as I did, I could not properly command men.  I needed a shave.  Would I like to use his razor and soap?  I agreed to do that, too.  So he brought me a razor, soap, and a brush, and while I was shaving, he explained that I would have to do something else to guarantee the comfort of our men.  According to the articles of war, you are not allowed to force a prisoner to give his consent or parole, meaning you cannot force a prisoner to give his word that he will not attempt escape.  I would have to violate the entire civilized world’s conception of POW life and give parole for several hundred prisoners.  If did not?  If I refused?  Then winter, shminter-they would remove the shoes and belts of all the men on the train!  But supposing I gave parole for these men and one of them escaped?  Oh, in that case the Germans would shoot me.  Seemed like an air-tight plan!  I love to see all the ends dovetail neatly.

But look.  When you have been expecting the Gestapo to take you off somewhere to a torture chamber, a minor violation of an international covenant is insignificant.  I agreed.  He also explained that the German people were extremely sensitive people.  Well, who didn’t know that?  He meant that they were sensitive about their homes being bombed, so there was to be no laughter, no frivolity, no singing in the presence of German civilians.  If there were, there might be an attack on the prisoners by the civilians, and I would be responsible for that, too.  Looked like a good setup for me to lose weight.  I agreed, of course.  Then I was taken to a large room, and all of the prisoners were brought in, including a few members of my own crew who looked at me with awe and wonders as though it were my bar mitzvah.  You know the look: Lenny is going to make a speech!

Beschnitten

I explained the conditions of the trip.  We were going to a Red Cross center for war prisoners where we would receive new clothing and the other toilet articles and supplies we would require for our new life.  Then I had them arrange themselves into a military formation, and I marched the group to the train from the building.  I have no idea how far we went but Jeez that was fun!  So another peculiarity of being a Jew in a German POW camp was that the only time in my three years of active duty in the Armed Forces of the USA that I ever commanded a marching formation of any size or of any kind whatsoever was at that prison interrogation rogation center in Nazi Germany where it was either a reward for being a brave or an impressive soldier or, an attempt at harassment so that I should not enjoy the train ride like everyone else.

At the Red Cross place – Wetzlar, I think it was – the commanding officer explained that we would get the things we needed.  He suggested that we all watch the maps for an American crossing of the Rhine River any day now at a certain point.  He informed us that there would be “mass for the mackerel munchers at 6:30 and services for the other league at 8 o’clock.”  We would have some papers to fill out for the Red Cross.  I realized that the Red Cross had nothing to do with these papers when the uniformed German filling out my information sheet insisted that I had a “birth mark or scar” which was beschnitten – cut off.  This, he explained, was because I was circumcised.  That was my identifying birthmark or scar.

From Wetzlar we went to Nuremberg.  It was at Nuremberg that we were finally home.  They had been telling us that, “For you the war is over.”  They told us that again.  As prisoners, now that the war was over for us, we slept in cellars and in barns, and once I awoke at night to find a large rat sitting on my face, staring at me.  Now we were safely registered as prisoners, and the food was just enough to keep one barely alive.  Men fell into the latrines and lacked the strength to pull themselves out of the fecal slime.  For them the war really was over.  A most appropriate way to go.  We were home.  We were safe from the civilians who tried to grab us in Vienna when my own bomber group attacked the city just as we reached a Red Cross soup kitchen.  There was not enough to eat, but Nuremberg was something to be proud of.  After all, it was the only major bombing target that could be reached by both the entire 15th Air Force based in Italy and the entire 8th Air Force based in England.  We were bombed all day by the Americans and all night by the British.  But they were not bombing our prison.  They were bombing other things such as rail junctions.

A Moment Embedded in Stars

In the midst of this confusion, one night the British sent the whole damned Royal Air Force to bomb, and they dropped flares right on the camp, which meant to us experienced air men that we were the target for tonight.  Actually they had dropped the flares so their bombardiers (bomb-aimers, they called them) would not hit us, but would hit the rail junction about a mile away.  We did not know that though, and so we thought that we were it.  I prayed for my mother, my father, my sister, and my brother as was my custom.  I sensed that I must not be selfish or God would ignore me altogether.  And I lay in that filth on my belly on the floor of the barracks and told God that if He could get me out of that mess I would dedicate my life to Him.  That was when I decided to become a rabbi.  Seriously, that was it.  I joke a lot, especially in anxiety-laden situations, but I am serious about this moment and the rabbinate.

Finally, the day came that we marched out of Nuremberg because the American infantry was getting too close.  On the first or second day of our long march, we were attacked by American P-47 dive bombers.  Einhorn had his leg ripped open, and I never saw him again.  Our next camp was Moosburg, which we reached after marching mostly in the rain for something like 125 kilometers (eighty-five miles), sleeping at night in the open or on farms or in bitterly cold churches.  When no one else would have us the churches always would let us in out of the rain.  The Germans, during this march, were neither mean nor cruel.  They were kind and helpful.  Can you handle that last sentence?  We must have looked horrible.  Old ladies carried buckets of water for us and brought us food.  We were everywhere throughout the countryside.  A hundred thousand of us.  Finally, I arrived at the desk of the British prisoner whose job was to fill out a new informational form on me.  All of the old records had been lost.  We found them a couple of weeks later.  This British prisoner asked me again the same weary questions I had answered so many times before.  I answered them again.

I did not want to give my parents’ address, as I always feared that they might be blackmailed by German agents in the United States.  Still, I did give the address of my parents because, after all, there was no way to write home without addressing the postcards.  But when I told this man that I was a Jew, he said that he would not write that down because he had been a prisoner for five years and had seen too many Jews disappear.

We were now only twelve miles from Dachau, where the Germans had been known to separate Jews from the other military prisoners.  I answered that I would not lie about my Jewishness.  He suggested that he write down Protestant for my religion.  I refused.  He told me that I was signing my own death warrant.  I told him that I had not come halfway around the world to lie about my religion; that was what the war was all about, and if I did what he asked and we won the war, I would still be the loser.  He wrote it down and told me that he was sorry for me.  I know that he meant that.  I felt his pain.  I didn’t smile either.  I was out of the habit.

A nun in Philadelphia has written, “Hope is a moment embedded in stars that shine when your courage is gone.”  A few weeks later we were liberated.

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Here are some images of MACR 12066, which covers the loss of B-24H 41-28911.

Information about the mission, technical information about the aircraft, and information about the plane’s crew appear below.

As mentioned by Rabbi Winograd, two crew members escaped capture.  One was S/Sgt. Carl B. Rudisill, an aerial gunner.  Having returned to Allied lines by February 8, here is his report – based on then-available information – about the status of his fellow crew members. 

Here is an English-language translation of the “Report on Capture of Members of Enemy Air Forces” form, which is typical of Luftgaukommando Reports.  This report covers the capture of Lieutenant Winograd… 

…while this report covers the capture of S/Sgt. Gerald Einhorn, who was serving as ball turret gunner.  Note that Sgt. Einhorn was captured the day be bailed out – January 31 – while Lt. Winograd was captured on February 2.

This document, dated 13 February, pertains to the transportation of several Allied POWs to Oberursel, including six members of the Andrus crew.  Notable in the list is an entry for South African serviceman Lieutenant Peter Krueger (207053), named in Rabbi Winograd’s account as “Paul Kreuger”. 

And, the final crew roster of 41-28911, generated by German investigators after identification and correlation of the captured airmen.  Notably and understandably absent are the names of S/Sgt. Carl B. Robert Rudisill and F/O Edward J. Derham.  They “got away”…

______________________________

Biographical and genealogical information about Gerald Einhorn and Leonard Winograd follows below:

Einhorn, Gerald, T/Sgt., 32784824, Ball-Turret Gunner, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Originally member of 493rd BG (8th Air Force)
POW Camp unknown
Born in Romania, 7/18/22; Died 2/5/83
Mrs. Gertrude (“Gittel”) (Yaskransky) Einhorn (wife) [6/24/24-6/5/05], 577 E. 98th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel and Mathilda Einhorn (parents) (presumably remained in Rumania during war; eventual fate unknown)
Married 1/25/43
Postwar, owned a hardware store in Brooklyn
Died 2/5/83
Buried at New Montefiore Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y.
American Jews in World War II – 301

Winograd, Leonard, 1 Lt., 0-712977, Navigator, Air Medal, 3 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart
POW at Stalag 7A (Moosburg, Germany)
Mr. Emil Winograd (father), 299 Jackson St., Rochester, Pa.
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/7/45
American Jews in World War II – 560

______________________________

Coincidence upon coincidence:  There was another Leonard Winograd who served in the Army Air Force in World War Two. 

He was an aerial navigator. 

He served on B-24s in the 15th Air Force.

His aircraft was lost on a combat mission. 

He, and his entire crew, survived the war.

This “other” Leonard Winograd, who hailed from Laburnum Crescent, in Rochester, New York, was the son of Morris Winograd, and the brother of Pvt. Solomon Winograd. 

His aircraft, B-24J 42-51382 of the 758th Bomb Squadron, 459th Bomb Group, piloted by 2 Lt. Lionel L. Lowry, Jr., failed to return from a mission to Linz, Austria on February 25, 1945, the plane’s loss being covered in MACR 12360.  Though I do not know the details, I would assume that the men returned to their squadron with the aid of Yugoslav partisans.  

A brief article about Lt. Winograd from the Rochester Times Union of  April 18, 1945, appears below, followed by the crew list.

______________________________

Postwar: Once Lieutenant Winograd, now Rabbi Winograd.  (Portrait from Rabies is Jewish Priests)

______________________________

References

Books

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Winograd, Leonard, “Double Jeopardy: What an American Army Officer, a Jew, Remembers of Prison Life in Germany,” American Jewish Archives, V 28, N 1, p. 3-17

Winograd, Leonard, Rabies is Jewish Priests – And Other Zeydeh Myses, Leonard Winograd, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990

Gerald Einhorn

Mention of Gerald Einhorn serving in 493rd Bomb Group (at American Air Museum website)

Robert Andrus

Robert Andrus’ Account of loss of B-24H 41-28911 (at 376th BG Website)

Robert Andrus Crew Members

Crew Photo – North Africa, in front of B-24J 42-50960 (Mary Ellen) (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photos from collection of aerial gunner Robert D. Reutsch (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – Wearing uniforms in front of building (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – In front of B-24H 42-95285 (#22Red Ryder) (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – In front of B-24H 42-51183 (#27Bad Penny) (at 376th BG website)

Crewmen – Donald H. Boulineau, Donald H., Leonard Winograd, and Robert J. Cartier (at 376th BG Website)

A PDF transcript of Rabbi Winograd’s story is available here.

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: 2 Lt. Peter Geiger – July 28, 1945

While military conflict by definition and nature brings with it the probability and near-inevitability of loss of life, nominal military service as such, even at locales often far removed from areas of actual combat, has always carried with its own degree of danger.  One aspect of the risk inherent to military service lies in support of and preparation for combat.  During the Second World War, a central aspect of this was reflected in the loss of aircraft and personnel by the United States Army Air Forces, Navy, and Marine Corps during flying training and routine air operations in the continental United States, and, overseas.

On August 9, 1945, an example of this appeared as an obituary published in the Times covering Army Air Force Lieutenant Peter Geiger of the, who was lost with his crew during a flight over Hawaii. 

Killed in Plane Crash Last Month

Lieut. Peter E. Geiger of the Army Air Forces died in an airplane crash in the territory of Hawaii on July 28, according to word received by his wife, Su D. Geiger.

Born in New York City twenty-two years ago, he was graduated from the Woodmere Academy and was attending Dartmouth College when he enlisted in the Air Forces in September, 1942.

Lieutenant Geiger was commissioned and received his wings as a pilot at the Columbus (Miss.) Army Air Field in June, 1944.  He was attached to the Seventeenth Tow Target Squadron in Hawaii.

In addition to his widow, he is survived by his mother, Mrs. Erwin Geiger, and his sister, Miss Joan Geiger of 419 East Fifty-Seventh Street.

A pilot in the 17th Target Towing Squadron of the 7th Fighter Wing, 7th Air Force, Lt. Geiger and his four crewmen were killed in the crash of B-24J Liberator 44-40706, the loss of which is described in Army Air Force Accident Report 46-7-28-515.  Like his father Erwin, who died on July 7, 1943, Peter is buried at Mount Hebron Cemetery, in Flushing, New York.  (Block 72, Section B, Lot 18, Grave 7)

______________________________

This is a view of the wartime residence of Lt. Geiger’s mother and sister, at 419 East 57th Street in Manhattan, as seen at Apartments.com.

And, a Google street view of the building’s entrance.

______________________________

This is the first page of the Accident Report (46-7-28-515) covering the loss of Lt. Geiger’s Liberator.  (Unlike MACRs – which have been digitized, and, which have long been available for research at the United States National Archives in College Park in microfiche format, Accident Reports must be requested in writing from the Air Force Historical Research Agency at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama.)  Note that the document accords substantial space for information about the training and flying experience – particularly hours flown – by the aircraft pilot.

This image presents an eyewitness account of the loss of B-24J 44-40766, by Sgt. Robert L. Burns.

The image is a summarized Description of the Accident.  The conclusion: “The Aircraft Accident Investigating Board was unable to determine whether power plant failure was a contributing factor in the crash.  The opinion of the Aircraft Accident Investigating Board is that the Pilot and Co-Pilot were fully qualified to fly this type aircraft.”

______________________________

Unlike Missing Air Crew Reports, though information about air crew members in Army Air Force Accident Reports includes a serviceman’s name, rank, and serial number, names of next-of-kin and residential addresses are entirely absent.  Certainly the accident report covering the loss of Peter Geiger’s Liberator follows this pattern, with the crew being listed at the bottom of page 1 of the document.  (See above.)

This “anonymity” of the crew members provided an opportunity to see what could be discovered about the crew, using Ancestry.com and other web-based resources.  The results were rewarding, for ample genealogical information about these four men was readily; easily found.  Very brief biographical profiles for them are presented below:

Co-Pilot: 1 Lt. Cecil E. “Pete” Tickner, 0-693712
Mrs. Dora Mae Brown Tickner (wife), Jon Tickner (son; YOB 1943), 1001 Brown St., Madison / 204 East Seventh St., Madison, ll.
Mr. and Mrs. Glenn and Lucretia (Gray) Tickner (parents), Harold E. Tickner (brother), 2711 Powhatton St., Alton, Il.
Born 12/18/17, Fairfield, Il.
Oakwood Cemetery, Upper Alton, Il.

Flight Engineer: T/Sgt. Robert J. Patterson, 17030270
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Alexander and Clara Grace Patterson (parents), Betty, Clara G., Helen, and Leslie Patterson (sisters), Jackson County, Mo.
Born 4/12/20, Colorado
Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, Fort Leavenworth, Ks. – Section I, Grave 175C

Flight Engineer: Sgt. Phillip Watrous “Phil” Hatfield, 39455940
Mrs. Theoda Violet (Campbell) Hatfield [Jenson] (wife)
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Augustus and Mabelle (Watrous) Hatfield (parents), Ray C. Hatfield (brother), Hallie E. Hatfield (nephew), Columbia County, Wa.
Born 5/12/10, Dayton, Wa.
National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii – Plot E52

Radio Operator: PFC John H. McNally, 15104642
Mr. and Mrs. Francis J. and Mary McNally (parents), Mary E., Michael, and William (sister and brothers)
643 Fernwood Ave., Toledo, Oh.
Born 10/2/20, Ohio
Buried at Calvary Cemetery, Toledo, Oh.

Some other Jewish military casualties on Saturday, July 28, 1945, include…

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Killed in Action

Adler, Bernard, 1 Lt., 0-1173139, Field Artillery, Silver Star, Purple Heart
United States Army, 32nd Infantry Division, 126th Field Artillery Battalion
Mrs. Sylvia Adler (wife) [8/10/19-3/11/95]
Mr. Samuel A. [3/23/88-5/11/83] and Leah [12/7/85-5/17/83] Adler (parents), 249 County St., New Haven, Ct.
Born 4/1/14
Mount Sinai Memorial Park, New Haven Ct. – Plot 160
https://www.findagrave.com/
Casualty List 8/28/45
American Jews in World War II – 61

Banker, Lea (“Lili Stefania”), LAW (Leading Aircraft Woman), 2992592
England, Women’s Auxiliary Air Force
Died in aircraft accident, en route from Egypt to the Yishuv
Mr. and Mrs. Adolf and Sophie Banker (parents), Brighton, Ma.
Born 9/21/21, Lodz, Poland
http://www.lodz-israel.co.il/soldiers/22banker-pol.html
Ramleh War Cemetery, Ramleh, Israel – Special Memorial E (Buried in Jerusalem?)
The Jewish Chronicle 8/17/45
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 182

______________________________

2 Lt. Harvey M. Brandriss and F/O Lawrence H. Goldman were the radar operator and bombardier of a 63rd Bomb Squadron (43rd Bomb Group – “Ken’s Men”) B-24M Liberator, 44-42127 (nicknamed “Boots“) that vanished during an armed reconnaissance mission to the Inland Sea of Japan.  Biographical records of them follow… 

Brandriss, Harvey M., 2 Lt., 0-931344, Radar Operator, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Mrs. Lorraine D. Brandriss (wife), 2782 Modill St., Chicago, Il.
Class 44-G, Selman Field
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
American Jews in World War II – 94

Goldman
, Lawrence H., F/O, T-132703, Bombardier, Air Medal, Purple Heart

Mrs. Mary Goldman (mother), 5801 8th Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 8/22/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

The loss of Boots is covered in MACR 14845, the crew list, location map, and next-of-kin list of which are presented below:

Piloted by 2 Lt. Charles H. Kerns, the plane, and the 11 men aboard it, have never been found. 

However enigmatic information at the POW Research Network Japan, a project of Dr. Aiko Utsumi and teacher Toru Fukubayashi, sheds light on the loss of Boots.  One of the six documents they have compiled covering Allied aircraft and airmen lost over the Japanese Mainland during the war – specifically, over the Chugoku (Chugoku) and Shikoku Army Districts – states the following:

“B-24 Jul. 28, 1945  B-24 (#44-42127, nicknamed Boots, 43BG) crashed offshore between Hiroshima-ken and Ie-jima, Okinawa-ken.
The plane was hit by AA fire while attacking Kure Harbor.
All 11 crew members including 2 /Lt. Charles H. KERNS (A/C) were killed.”

Another source, Accident-Report.com, gives the location as “SAGANOSEKI AT SEA, JAPAN”.

Could the source of this information be Japanese military records? 

Could the source of this information be Individual Deceased Personnel Files?

I do not know.

In any event, the names of Boots’ crew are memorialized on the Tablets of the Missing at the Honolulu Memorial, in Hawaii.

______________________________

Stein, Harry, PFC, 32704732, Radar Operator
United States Army Air Force, 1347th Army Air Force Base Unit
Mrs. Ida Weinstein (aunt), 1002 Foster Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
MACR 14799; Aircraft: C-109 44-48890; “Little Chief”; Pilot: Capt. Claude W. Tucker; 4 crewmen – no survivors
Place of burial unknown
The Aluminum Trail – 460
American Jews in World War II – 453

References

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947.

Quinn, Chick Marrs, The Aluminum Trail – How & Where They Died – China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945, Chick Marrs Quinn, [Florida?], 1989

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

United States Army Air Force Accident Report # 46 – 7 – 28 – 515

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: The Gans Brothers – Sgt. Ralph Gans – January 31, 1945


The Second World War was characterized by near-universal military service among the warring nations, either voluntarily, or through conscription.  As such, multiple members of a single family – fathers and sons; sets of brothers – would find themselves wearing the uniforms of their countries, serving in combat or military support duties on land, in the air, or at sea.  Sometimes, this would occur in the same geographic theater of operations; sometimes, even in the same branch of service. 

Sometimes, fate – or God – would cast a favorable face upon a family: All its members would return, and resume their civilian lives in the fullness of time.  Or, like soldiers throughout history, they would be transformed, traumatized, or inspired (often in reinforcing or contradictory combination) by their military experiences, and embark – by decision or chance – upon new and unanticipated paths through life.

Sometimes, God – or fate – would cast an entirely difference “face” upon a family, perhaps manifesting what is known in Hebrew (most notably in the book of Isaiah) as an aspect of “hester punim”.  (Perhaps; perhaps.)  For such a family, the course of life would unalterably, irrevocably altered… 

In that sense, while my prior posts about Jewish soldiers reported upon in The New York Times have by definition covered specific individuals, in 1945, for the Gans family of the Bronx, life indeed took that different course.  The Gans brothers – Ralph (Rafael bar Yaakov) and Solomon (Zalman bar Yaakov) – lost their lives in military service with four weeks of one another, and their loss was covered in the Times on April 17 of that year.

Ralph, born in 1920 and the older of the two, lost his life in England on January 31 under non-combat circumstances while serving with the Ordnance Corps.  Solomon, a Second Lieutenant who had been enrolled at City College, was killed in combat while serving in I Company, 253rd Infantry Regiment, 63rd Infantry Division on January 3. 

The sons of Jacobs and Mary Gans of 494 Claremont Parkway (East 171st St.) in the Bronx, their obituary appeared in the Times on April 17.  They are buried adjacent to one another at Mount Lebanon Cemetery, in Glendale, N.Y. (Workmen’s Circle Society, Block WC, Section 5, Line 28): Solomon in Grave 12, and Ralph in Grave 13.

(While this post covers both brothers, information about other Jewish servicemen is limited to those soldiers who became casualties the same day as Sgt. Gans: January 31, 1945.  As such, a second post will repeat the biographical information (above) about the Gans brothers, and present information about Jewish military casualties on January 3, 1945.)

Bronx Family Loses Its Only Two Sons

War Department notification of the deaths of Lieut. Solomon Gans and T/Sgt. Ralph Gans, only sons of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Gans of 495 East 171st Street, the Bronx, has been received.

Previously reported missing, Lieutenant Gans, 22 years old, was killed in action in France Jan. 3, while attached to the 253rd Infantry.  He was a graduate of Theodore Roosevelt High School and had completed three years at City College before entering the Army, on June 16, 1943.

Sergeant Gans, 25, died in England on Jan. 31, according to the War Department.  Also a graduate of Theodore Roosevelt High School, he worked for the Noma Electric Company prior to induction.  He entered the Army on Jan. 20, 1942, and was serving with an ordnance battalion at the time of his death.

This image, by S. Daino, shows the matzevot of Ralph and Solomon, at Mount Lebanon Cemetery. 

Some other Jewish military casualties on Wednesday, January 31, 1945, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Averbakh, Leonid Borisovich (Авербах, Леонид Борисович), Junior Lieutenant [Младший Лейтенант]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 26th Tank Corps, 25th Tank Brigade
Tank Commander
Born 1908
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V – 82
[Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том V – 82]

Benamou, Paul, Sous-Lieutenant, Legion d’Honneur, at Durenentzen, Haut-Rhin, France
France, Armée de Terre, Bataillon de Choc (Nieme)
“At Durenentzen, on 31 January 1945, was one of the first to enter the village at the head of his men.  Hunted the enemy from house to house, to the edge of the church.  Fell gloriously as he reached the last objective assigned to him.”
(A Durenentzen, le 31 janvier 1945 fut un des premiers à pénétrer dans le village à la téte de ses hommes.  Chasse l’ennemi de maison en maison, jusqu’aux abords de l’église.  Tombe glorieusement alors qu’il atteignait le derneir objectif qu’on lui avait assigné.)
Place of burial unknown

Livre d’Or et de Sang – 126-127

Beylin, Yuriy Evseevich (Бейлин, Юрий Евсеевич), Guards Sergeant [Гвардии Сержант]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 8th Guards Army, 259th Autonomous Tank Regiment
Tank Commander (T-34)
Born 1925
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume IX – 69
[Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том IX – 69]

Brachman, Max, PFC, 32904506, Purple Heart
United States Army, 9th Infantry Division, 39th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. and Rose Brachman (parents), Freida and Min (sisters), Bronx, N.Y.
Born 8/25/11; Father died 12/26/44
Place of Burial – Cedar Park Cemetery, Paramus, N.J.
New York Times Obituary Page Memorial Section 1/31/46
American Jews in World War II – 282

Buschnoff, Frederick M., Pvt., 12221150, Purple Heart (In Belgium)
United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Emil and Lena Buschnoff (parents), PFC Milton E. and Robert L. Buscnhoff (brothers), 473 West End Ave., New York, N.Y.
Born 1926
Place of Burial – unknown
Casualty List 3/8/45
The New York Times (Obituary Page) 2/14/45, 1/31/47
American Jews in World War II – 287

Cohen, Haskell D., Sgt., 32736088
United States Army, 84th Infantry Division, 335th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Bessie L. Cohen (mother), 52 Hanover St., Rochester, N.Y.
Born 1926
Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium – Plot E, Row 7, Grave 13
American Jews in World War II – 290

Falk, Mark, Pvt., 13941547
England, British Army, Pioneer Corps
Mrs. Sophie Falk (wife), Merton Park, Surrey, England; Mr. and Mrs. Hersz and Rosa Falk (parents)
Born 1899
Schoonselhof Cemetery, Antwerpen, Belgium – V,B,18
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – p. 267

Grinberg
, Mark Yakovlevich (Гринберг, Марк Яковлевич)

Lieutenant [Pilot (Bomber – Flight Commander) [Командир Звена] Лейтенант]
U.S.S.R., Military Air Forces – VVS, 5th Bombardment Aviation Corps, 640th Bombardment Aviation Regiment
Killed in crash (accident) of A-20G Havoc attack bomber; 3 crewmen – no survivors
Born 1919
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume I – 408
[Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том I – 408]

Harman, Marvin A., Pvt., 42041845, Purple Heart
United States Army, 78th Infantry Division, 311th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Ruth C. Heimowitz (mother)
Mr. Sydney N. Craig (uncle), 5606 15th Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1926
Netherlands American Cemetery, Margraten, Holland – Plot B, Row 21, Grave 14
Casualty List 3/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 341 (Incorrectly gives surname as “Harmin”)

Saperstein, Eugene, PFC, 42007276, Medical Corps, Silver Star, Purple Heart
United States Army, 104th Infantry Division, 413th Infantry Regiment, G Company
Mr. Samuel Saperstein (father), 1204 Fairmount Ave., Elizabeth, N.J.
Born Elizabeth, N.J., 9/3/24
Place of Burial – unknown
Casualty List 3/31/45
American Jews in World War II – 252

Semhoun, Michel Moise, at Guewenheim, Haut-Rhin, France
France, Armée de Terre, 6eme Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains
Tlemcen, Algeria
Born 2/22/25
Place of burial unknown
Au Service de la France – 147

Wajc
, Jakub, 2 Lt.

Poland, Polish People’s Army, 7th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Benedikt Wajc (father)
Place of burial unknown
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume I) – 72

______________________________


Three of the servicemen lost this day – Co-Pilot 2 Lt. Bernard “Benny” Jacobs, Radio Operator S/Sgt. Martin Feldman, and Flight Engineer / top turret gunner S/Sgt. Harry J. Ofsa – served in the same air crew.  Members of the 38th (“Sunsetter”) Bomb Group’s 405th (“Green Dragons”) Bomb Squadron (5th Air Force) their B-25J Mitchell (serial number 43-36201), piloted by 2 Lt. James J. Benjamin, was lost during an attack against three Japanese destroyers south of Taiwan.

As reported by Sgt. Walter B. Kuzla in Missing Air Crew Report 13759:

“As this aircraft was starting making its run I noticed a few bursts of ack-ack coming from the destroyer.  I don’t know whether the ack-ack hit the aircraft or it hit the mast but it seemed to wing over and crash into the water and exploded.  [sic]  All four bombs made direct hits on the destroyer.  It is believed that this destroyer sank a few minutes later.”

On March 8, Major Edward J. Maurer, Jr. supplemented the Report with the following information:

“The left engine of Lieutenant Benjamin’s airplane appeared to be burning when the plane was about two hundred yards from a destroyer and immediately afterward the plane exploded and hit hard into the water, the remaining airplanes in the flight then formed in formation and circled the area for signs of any survivors, but it was definitely ascertained that there were none.”

Biographical information about the men is presented below.  Though I have no idea about the number of sorties their crew had completed before January 31, the level of the awards they received (Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal, and Purple Heart) suggests – due to the lack of multiple Oaf Leaf Clusters for the Air Medal denoting over 5 missions – that they were a members of a relatively new crew. 

______________________________

Feldman, Martin, S/Sgt., 32903672, Radio Operator, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Mr. Reuben Feldman (father), 588 E. 93rd St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Casualty List 5/10/45
American Jews in World War II – 307

______________________________

Jacobs, Bernard (“Benny”), 2 Lt., 0-815149, Co-Pilot, Purple Heart
Born Somerville, Ma., 8/6/16
Mrs. Sylvia Jacobs (wife), 34 Beale Road, Waltham, Ma.
Casualty List 5/7/45
American Jews in World War II – 165

This image of Lt. Jacobs, provided by Barkas, appears at his FindAGrave profile.

______________________________

Ofsa, Harry J., S/Sgt., 39571347, Flight Engineer, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Mrs. Anita R. Ofsa (wife), Steven (son – YOB 1944), 1319 North Washburn St., Minneapolis, Mn.
Mr. and Mrs. Simon [12/6/87-4/3/39] and Beulah (Bachrach) [5/29/92-52/29/53] Ofsa (parents); Mrs. Doris Jean (Ofsa) Kohn (sister)
Born Williamson, West Viriginia, 3/15/18
American Jews in World War II – 203

From his FindAGrave profile, this image of S/Sgt. Ofsa, provided by Laurie, presumably shows him in pre-war civilian life. 

S/Sgt. Ofsa’s family created a symbolic matzeva in his memory, as seen in this image, provided by Alan Bachrach.  The matzeva is found at Temple Emanuel Cemetery, in Roanoke, Virginia. 

______________________________

This is an excellent representative view (from pinterest) of B-25J Mitchell bombers of the 405th Bomb Squadron, immediately and distinctively indentifiable by their vivid, green “dragon head” nose markings.  The aircraft in the rear, 44-30921, probably (?…) survived the war, as there is no Missing Air Crew Report for the plane, and it does not appear at Aviation Archeology’s  USAF  / USAAF Accident Report database

This is a beautiful example of an original (early 1945) Australian manufactured 405th BS “Green Dragon” squadron patch (from Flying Tiger Antiques), as intended to be worn on aviator’s flying jacket.  In the same way that there were many stylistic variations of the “dragon head” insignia on 405th BS Mitchell bombers, so were there stylistic variations in the squadron uniform patch, other images of which can be easily found.

______________________________

From the Missing Aircrew Report for B-25J 43-36201, the following page presents information about the plane and crew as well as the mission on which they were lost, while the next page gives the crew’s next of kin and home addresses.

______________________________

This page, also from MACR 13759, shows – as denoted by a small “x” – the location of the Mitchell’s loss.  The Google map beneath covers the same area in a smaller scale, showing the location of the plane’s loss via Google’s red locator arrow. 

______________________________

Prisoners of War

Silverstein, Martin, PFC, 32975882, Purple Heart
United States Army
POW at Stalag 12A (Limburg an der Lahn)
Mr. Benjamin Silverstein (father), 197 Utica Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mrs. Helen Weiseltheir (?), 901 Carroll St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1924
Casualty List 4/19/45
American Jews in World War II – 445

Zeiler, Albert I., Pvt., 42130938, Purple Heart
United States Army
POW at Stalag 9C (Bad Sulza)
Mrs. Florence F. Zeiler (wife), 344 New Lots Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Casualty List 5/15/45 (Liberated POW)
American Jews in World War II – 477

Zelman, Paul, Cpl., 33308496
United States Army, 9th Infantry Division, 60th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 12A (Limburg an der Lahn)
Mrs. Miriam Zelman (wife); Barbara Lee Zelman (daughter; YOB 1948), 826 Collins Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Mrs. Bessie Zelmanov (mother), 844 Sheridan Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Born Russia, 3/6/18
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/5/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Wounded in Action

Asch, Clifford M., Trooper, D/143297
Canada, Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
Mr. Michael Asch (father), 3482 Northcliffe Ave., Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties – 85

Benichou, Albert, Aspirant, Char (Chef de Section), Croix de Guerre, Medaille Militaire, at Village de Durrenentezn, Haut-Rhin, France
France, Armée de Terre, Nieme Battailon de Choc
On the night of 31 January to 1 February 1945, on the attack of the village of Durrenentezn (Haut-Rhin), he brilliantly distinguished himself by pushing his section behind the tanks, securing the capture of 82 prisoners including 2 officers.  Wounded in the action; refused care; retained the command of his section pursuing the fight until the complete annihilation of any enemy resistance at Durrenentezn.  (Dans la nuit du 31 janvier au 1er février 1945, à l’attaque du village de Durrenentezn (Haut-Rhin), s’est brillamment distingué en poussant sa section derrière les chars, réussissant la capture de 82 prisonniers dont 2 officiers.  Blessé dans l’action, a refusé les soins, a conservé le commandement de sa section poursuivant la lutte jusq’à l’anéantissement complet de toute résistance ennemie à Durrenentezn.)
Wounded subsequently, on 4/13/45

Livre d’Or et de Sang – 148, 173

Other Incidents

Aviator – Returned with crew after aircraft last seen heading to Yugoslavia

Dondes, Paul, Cpl., 11100425, Radio Operator, Bronze Star Medal, Air Medal
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 454th Bomb Group, 739th Bomb Squadron
Mr. Israel Dondes (father), 153 Loomis St., Burlington Vt.
MACR 11831; Aircraft: B-24J 44-41134; Pilot: 2 Lt. Artist H. Prichard, Jr., 11 crewmen – all survived
American Jews in World War II – 576

Aviators – Reported missing, but returned to duty (circumstances unknown)

Mandel, Harold, Sgt., 42059203, Ball Turret Gunner
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 451st Bomb Group, 724th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. May Mandel (mother), 1842 Anthony Ave., Bronx, N.Y.
MAVR 11830; Aircraft: B-24L 44-49460; Pilot: 1 Lt. Lloyd O. Boots; 10 crewmen – all survived
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Stein, Leonard, Cpl., 35059185, Flight Engineer
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 460th Bomb Group, 762nd Bomb Squadron
Mr. Sam Stein (father), 791 East 105th St., Cleveland, Oh.
Born 1924
No MACR; B-24H 41-28805; No other information available
Mentioned in AFHRA Microfilm Roll BO 609, Frame 871
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

References

Bell, Dana (Illustrated by Don Greer, Betty Stadt and Dana Bell), Air Force Colors Volume 3: Pacific and Home Front, 1942-47, Squadron / Signal Publications, Carrollton, Tx., 1997

Chiche, F., Livre d’Or et de Sang – Les Juifs au Combat: Citations 1939-1945 de Bir-Hakeim au Rhin et Danube, Edition Brith Israel, Tunis, Tunisie, 1946

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom – Compiled by the Bureau of War Records of the National Jewish Welfare Board, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Freeman, Roger A., Camouflage and Markings – United States Army Air Force, 1937-1945, Ducimus Books Limited, London, England, 1974 (“North American B-25 Mitchell U.S.A.A.F, 1941-1945”, pp. 217-240)

Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors),Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume I [Surnames beginning with А (A), Б (B), В (V), Г (G), Д (D), Е (E), Ж (Zh), З (Z), И (I)], Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 1994

Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V [Surnames beginning with А (A), Б (B), В (V), Г (G), Д (D), Е (E), Ж (Zh), З (Z), И (I), К (K)], Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 1998


Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume IX [Surnames beginning with all letters of the alphabet], Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 2006

Meirtchak, Benjamin, Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armies in World War II: I – Jewish Soldiers and Officers of the Polish People’s Army Killed and Missing in Action 1943-1945, World Federation of Jewish Fighters Partisans and Camp Inmates: Association of Jewish War Veterans of the Polish Armies in Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1994

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

References – No Author Listed

Au Service de la France (Edité à l’occasion du 10ème anniversaire de l’Union des Engagés Volontaires et Anciens Combattants Juifs 1939-1945), l’Union Des Engagés Volontaires Et Anciens Combattants Juifs, Paris (?), France, 1955

Canadian Jews in World War II
– Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: The Gans Brothers – 2 Lt. Solomon Gans – January 3, 1945

The Second World War was characterized by near-universal military service among the warring nations, either voluntarily, or through conscription.  As such, multiple members of a single family – fathers and sons; sets of brothers – would find themselves wearing the uniforms of their countries, serving in combat or military support duties on land, in the air, or at sea.  Sometimes, this would occur in the same geographic theater of operations; sometimes, even in the same branch of service. 

Sometimes, fate – or God – would cast a favorable face upon a family: All its members would return, and resume their civilian lives in the fullness of time.  Or, like soldiers throughout history, they would be transformed, traumatized, or inspired (often in reinforcing or contradictory combination) by their military experiences, and embark – by decision or chance – upon new and unanticipated paths through life.

Sometimes, God – or fate – would cast an entirely difference “face” upon a family, perhaps manifesting what is known in Hebrew (most notably in the book of Isaiah) as an aspect of “hester punim”.  (Perhaps; perhaps.)  For such a family, the course of life would unalterably, irrevocably altered… 

In that sense, while my prior posts about Jewish soldiers reported upon in The New York Times have by definition covered specific individuals, in 1945, for the Gans family of the Bronx, life indeed took that different course.  The Gans brothers – Ralph (Rafael bar Yaakov) and Solomon (Zalman bar Yaakov) – lost their lives in military service with four weeks of one another, and their loss was covered in the Times on April 17 of that year.

Ralph, born in 1920 and the older of the two, lost his life in England on January 31 under non-combat circumstances while serving with the Ordnance Corps.  Solomon, a Second Lieutenant who had been enrolled at City College, was killed in combat while serving in I Company, 253rd Infantry Regiment, 63rd Infantry Division on January 3. 

The sons of Jacobs and Mary Gans of 494 Claremont Parkway (East 171st St.) in the Bronx, their obituary appeared in the Times on April 17.  They are buried adjacent to one another at Mount Lebanon Cemetery, in Glendale, N.Y. (Workmen’s Circle Society, Block WC, Section 5, Line 28): Solomon in Grave 12, and Ralph in Grave 13.

(While this post covers both brothers, information about other Jewish servicemen is limited to those soldiers who became casualties on the same day as Lt. Gans: January 3, 1945.  As such, the earlier post (about Sgt. Ralph Gans) presented the same biographical information about the Gans brothers as “this” post.  That post included information about Jewish military casualties on January 31, 1945.)

Bronx Family Loses Its Only Two Sons

War Department notification of the deaths of Lieut. Solomon Gans and T/Sgt. Ralph Gans, only sons of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Gans of 495 East 171st Street, the Bronx, has been received.

Previously reported missing, Lieutenant Gans, 22 years old, was killed in action in France Jan. 3, while attached to the 253rd Infantry.  He was a graduate of Theodore Roosevelt High School and had completed three years at City College before entering the Army, on June 16, 1943.

Sergeant Gans, 25, died in England on Jan. 31, according to the War Department.  Also a graduate of Theodore Roosevelt High School, he worked for the Noma Electric Company prior to induction.  He entered the Army on Jan. 20, 1942, and was serving with an ordnance battalion at the time of his death.

This image, by S. Daino, shows the matzevot of Ralph and Solomon, at Mount Lebanon Cemetery.

Some other Jewish military casualties on Wednesday, January 3, 1945, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Bank, Louis, PFC, 32117222, Purple Heart
United States Army, 44th Infantry Division, 71st Infantry Regiment
Mr. Sam Bank (father), 2459 East 23rd St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Casualty List 2/22/45
Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y. – Section H, Grave 10353
American Jews in World War II – 269

Danchik, Samuel, Cpl., 32622948, Purple Heart
United States Army, 100th Infantry Division, 398th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Max Danchik (father), 826 Park Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mrs. Lillian Danchik (sister in law), 217 Hart St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Maurice Gherman (friend)
Born 1921
Place of Burial – unknown
Casualty List 2/22/45
American Jews in World War II – 295

Druskin, Zalman, Pvt., at Liepaja (region), Latvia
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 16th Lithuanian Rifle Division, 294th Infantry Brigade
Mr. Shepsel Druskin (father)
Born 1919
Road to Victory, p. 293

Gildenberg, Isaac, Pvt., 42124609, Purple Heart
United States Army, 99th Infantry Division, 394th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Lena Y. Gildenberg (mother), 386 South 2nd St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1925
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Glendale, N.Y. – Block WC, Section 5, Line 24, Grave 5, Society Workmen’s Circle
American Jews in World War II – 320

Gross, Harold J., Cpl., 35280304, Purple Heart
United States Army, 2nd Armored Division, 66th Armored Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Julia Gross (mother), 10511 Greenlawn Ave., Cleveland, Oh.
PFC Lawrence Gross (brother)
Address also 1400 South Kenmore, Los Angeles, 6, Ca.
Born 12/16/17
Place of burial: Los Angeles, Ca.
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, February 24 & 25, 1945, October 26, 1948 (at Cleveland Veterans Memorial)
American Jews in World War II – 489

Hafter, Ralph Lewis, EM 1C (Electrician’s Mate 1st Class), 3825644, Purple Heart
United States Navy, Submarine USS Swordfish (SS193)
Mrs. Mae Mary Agnes Hafter (wife), 6922 Southeast Morrison St., Portland, Or.
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Date of 1/3/45 is conjectural; See the following references:
Account of the loss of the USS Swordfish (at “On Eternal Patrol”)
Account of the loss of the USS Swordfish (by Ed Howard, at Subsowespac.org)
Crew list of the USS Swordfish (at “On Eternal Patrol)
American Jews in World War II – 506

Heymann, Gerhard E., PFC, 32799312, Belgium (Wounded 1/3/45; died same day)
United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Julius and Hanna (Braun) Heymann (parents), 42-42 Ithaca St., Elmhurst, N.Y.
S2C Werner L. Heymann (brother)
Born Landau in der Pfalz, Germany, 5/8/24
WW II Memorial database gives name as “Gerard”, while Long Island Star Journal gives name as “Gerald”
Tablets of the Missing at Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France
Aufbau 2/9/45
New York Times 2/23/45
Long Island Star Journal 2/21/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Hurwitz, Julius Nathaniel (“Jay”), 2 Lt., 0-698120, Navigator
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 498th Bomb Group, 875th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Ruth (Marks) Hurwitz (wife), 560 West Hudson Ave., Dayton, Oh.
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel [1886-1950] and Freeda [1888-1990] Hurwitz (parents), 701 Lexington Ave., Dayton, Oh.Dayton Daily News 11/18/43, 12/3/43
Riverview Cemetery, Dayton, Oh. (at FindAGrave.com)
American Jews in World War II – 490

Julius Hurwitz, originally in training as a pilot at the 63rd Army Air Forces Flying Training Detachment, in Coffee County, Georgia, was presumably reassigned to navigation training. 

Julius and his entire crew were lost on their first combat flight, a bombing mission to port facilities and urban areas of Nagoya, Japan.  Their aircraft, B-29 42-24748 (“T square 42“, piloted by 1 Lt. Richard C. Stickney), the loss of which is covered in MACR 10853, crashed on Anatahan Island, an island in the Marianas about 75 miles north of Saipan. 

As reported in the Stickney crew’s Missing Air Crew Report, “When last contacted [the] aircraft did not report difficulty of any kind,” while the plane did not respond to attempts at radio contact.  Similarly, it is notable that the MACR makes no reference of damage to the aircraft by anti-aircraft fire or enemy fighters, attributing no specific cause for the plane’s disappearance.

According to MACR, the B-29, “…had entered the crater at the Northeast side of the island through the lowest point in the rim of the crater, encircled to the left and crashed head-on into the higher peaks on the Southeast side.  The aircraft exploded and burned and partially buried itself in the mountain side.”

Though the cause of the plane’s loss will be forever unknown, it is notable that the description of Anatahan Island included in the MACR mentions, “…the crater rim rises to an elevation of 2,585 feet.  Inside the rim there is a relatively level grassy area two miles long and one mile wide.  Elsewhere on the island slopes are steep and furrowed by deep ravines.”  Given what seems to have been a controlled descent by T Square 42 into the crater – through the lowest point on the rim – perhaps (perhaps) Lieutenants Stickney and Langdon were attempting to make a controlled landing within the crater.

Well, perhaps…  It is a moot point, now.

______________________________

Information presented in Marianas Air-Sea Rescue Bulletin Number 4, issued in June of 1945, may be based on the knowledge acquired during the search and recovery effort for Lt. Stickney’s crew from March 1 through March 5, 1945.  This 23-page-long document presents information about specific islands within the Marianas archipelago – between Iwo Jima and Saipan – in terms of suitability as locations for ditching, survival, and eventual rescue.  The islands covered comprise Pajaros, Maug, Asuncion, Agrihan, Pagan, Alamagan, Guguan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Medinlla.  The Bulletin describes each island in detail, presenting topographic maps and panoramic aerial photos for each, concluding with a 3-page-long summary of detailed rules for survival at sea and on land, which lists islands based on whether they are uninhabited, or, sparsely inhabited islands, along with latitude and longitude coordinates. 

______________________________

The Bulletin’s map of the relative positions of these islands is shown below:

______________________________

The description of Anatahan Island follows below:

Confidential

ANATAHAN.

Jap survivors of small Merchant ships and escapees from SAIPAN make up the total population of 7 to 29, according to native evacuees.  At one time they had 2 heavy machine guns and several rifles which the natives were forced to keep in condition by pressing oil from coconuts.  No natives remain.

With this information in mind, it would be well to choose a spot well away from the NORTHWEST BEACH for any proposed ditching. The SOUTHWEST BEACH, due SOUTH of the high peak on the WEST end of the island, offers the best haven.  Watch out that you don’t come a cropper on the offshore rocks – and there are many.  The boulder beach is not the softest place to land but your rubber raft should cushion the shock.  Once ashore you will find some shelter in the shacks on the beach or in rocky caves.  Coconuts, bananas, papaya and seafood will give you a subsistence mean with such items as the edible flying fox or fruit bat and the giant monster lizards to supplement the diet.   Water in the cisterns MUST be boiled.

Don’t attempt a crash landing or bailout in the crater!  The floor is deceivingly Irregular and highly inaccessible to the outside world!

All in all, ANATAHAN is not a ditching haven and should be bypassed for greener pastures.

______________________________

The topographic map of Anatahan Island – show below – illustrates the seamount’s rugged topography.  (Unfortunately, the contour interval – 50 feet? – 100 feet? – does not appear to be given.)  Strikingly noticeable is the absence of any contours within the volcanic crater.  Perhaps this feature remained unmapped due to the recognition that the terrain within was unsuitable for emergency landing by aircraft. 

This page also includes a panoramic view of the island. 

____________________________

This high resolution air photo of Anatahan, at the University of Tokyo’s Earthquake Research Insitute’s website, gives an appreciation of the extremely rugged nature of the currently uninhabited island.

This image of the crater rim, from the Photostream of Southern Methodist University, also reveals the forbidding nature of Anatahan’s terrain. 

Additional information about this incident can be found in the history of B-29 42-24748, at Pacific Wrecks

The image below, from the blog of William C. Atkinson, former radar-navigator in the 874th Bomb Squadron, 498th Bomb Group, shows most of the crew members lost on the mission of January 3. The men (left to right) are the following:

Front Row

AMG – Boyd, Jack L., Sgt.
Gunner – Quinn, John P., Sgt.
Thomas (not on fatal flight)
Gunner (Central Fire Control) – Merriweather, James O., Sgt.
ROM – Haynes, Paul M., Sgt.
Elec. Sp. Gunner – Zeone, Edward M., Sgt.

Rear Row

H.A. Brandt (not on fatal flight)
Pilot – Stickney, Richard C., Jr., 1 Lt.
Co-Pilot – Winslow, Langdon G., 2 Lt.
Bombardier – Thompson, Richard F., 2 Lt.
Navigator – Hurwitz, Julius N., 2 Lt.

Flight Engineer 2 Lt. Howard G. King, Howard G. and Radar Countermeasures operator Sgt. John E. Burns do not appear in the photo.

This photo of Julius’ matzeva, from his FindAGrave biographical profile, is by Mary Downing-Mahan (“gravehunterMary“). 

Melinsky, Abraham, PFC, 31242242, Purple Heart, Medical Corps
United States Army, 26th Infantry Division, 328th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Louis and Jennie Melinsky (parents), 3 Lamont St., Roxbury, Ma.
Born 1915
Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – Plot G, Row 10, Grave 27
American Jews in World War II – 171

Minsker, Faivel, Pvt., at Mezotne, Latvia
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 16th Lithuanian Rifle Division, 294th Infantry Brigade
Mr. Shmuel Minsker (father)
Born 1919
Road to Victory, p. 293

Pruzan, Murray, T/5, 32992938, Medical Corps (near Phillipsbourg, France)
United States Army, 70th Infantry Division, 275th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion, Medical Detachment
Mrs. Pauline Pruzan (mother), 1446 Carroll St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mount Judah Cemetery, Ridgewood, Queens, N.Y. – 1-BB2-R09, Wolkovisker Society
Casualty List 9/11/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Robbins, Lawrence, Cpl., 12049477, Purple Heart
United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Helen Rabinowitz (parents), Raymond and Robert (brothers), 325 West 86th St., New York, N.Y.
Born 1924
Acacia Cemetery, Ozone Park, N.Y. – Lots 216-217, Marks Goldstein
Casualty List 3/14/45
The New York Times (Obituary Section) 1/6/46
American Jews in World War II – 414

Roberts, Sidney J., PFC, 12111003, Purple Heart
United States Army, 70th Infantry Division, 275th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Louis and Tillie F. Rabinowitz (parents), 33-21 69th St., Jackson Heights, N.Y.
Born 1924
City College of New York Class of 1945
Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France – Plot B, Row 24, Grave 30
Casualty List 2/22/45
Long Island Star Journal 2/21/45
American Jews in World War II – 414

Schaeffer, Samuel, Sgt., 32916161, Aerial Gunner, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 8th Air Force, 801st Bomb Group, 406th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Rose Schaeffer (mother), 89 Heddon Terrace, Newark, N.J.
Born 2/6/20
MACR 15974, Aircraft: B-24H 42-52650, “Cancer”; Pilot: 1 Lt. Roy L. Hendrix; 10 crewmen – no survivors
Isserman Cemetery, Newark, N.J.
Casualty List 2/22/45
American Jews in World War II – 252

Wasserman, Gerald, Sgt., 32887164, Purple Heart
United States Army, 84th Infantry Division, 335th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Anna Wasserman (mother), 1506 Boston Road, New York, N.Y.
Born 1925
Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y. – Section H, Grave 10449
Casualty List 3/8/45
American Jews in World War II – 465

Wolfe
, Marvin L., PFC, 36639407, Purple Heart

United States Army, 63rd Infantry Division, 255th Infantry Regiment, L Company
Mrs. Sylvia Wolfe (mother), 5480 South Cornell St., Chicago, Il.
Born 11/1/23
Westlawn Cemetery, Norridge, Chicago, Il.
American Jews in World War II – 121

Prisoners of War

Cole, Sidney L., 2 Lt., 0-1185213, Purple Heart
United States Army, 776th Field Artillery Battalion
POW at Stalag 4F (Hartmannsdorf-Chemnitz, Germany)
Mrs. Lena Cohn (mother), 79 Shoreham Road, Buffalo, N.Y.
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/20/45
American Jews in World War II – 293

Becker
, Meyer D., S/Sgt., 36035573

United States Army, 87th Infantry Division, 346th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 13C (Hammelburg, Germany) (German POW # 98440)
Mrs. Beatrice L. Becker (wife), 6810 East End Ave., Chicago, Il.
Born Illinois, 8/3/17
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/12/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Fine
, Howard L., Cpl., 35077112

United States Army, 70th Infantry Division, 275th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 4B (Muhlberg, Germany)
Mrs. Bessie E. Fine (mother), Route 1, Laura, Oh.
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/11/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Klein
, Leonard, 2 Lt., 0-556880

United States Army, 70th Infantry Division, 275th Infantry Regiment
POW – location of camp unknown
2 Lt. Arthur Klein (brother)
Mr. Charles Klein (father), 109 States Ave., Atlantic City, N.J.
Born 1923
Philadelphia Bulletin 1/30/45
Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Record (Liberated POW) 5/9/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Rosen
, Murray, Pvt., 12096956, Purple Heart, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster

United States Army, 70th Infantry Division, 275th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 12F (Forbach Bei Saarbrucken, Germany)
Mr. Jacob Rosen (father), 159 Delancey St., New York, N.Y.
Casualty Lists 4/20/45, 4/24/45, Liberated POW List 5/25/45
American Jews in World War II – 416

Wounded in Action

Applebaum, Herbert, PFC, 33775404, Wounded in Belgium
United States Army
Born 1926
Mr. and Mrs. Harry and Betty Applebaum (parents), 1025 Wagner Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born Philadelphia, Pa., 12/4/25
Jewish Exponent 2/23/45
Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Record 2/18/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Novick, Joseph, Pvt., 33467896, Purple Heart, Wounded in Belgium
United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Isadore and Anna Novick (parents), 924 N. 6th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born Philadelphia, Pa., 10/27/21
Philadelphia Record 3/17/45
American Jews in World War II – 541

Lenger, Robert J., Cpl., Purple Heart, Paratrooper
United States Army
Mr. Fred Lenger (uncle), 175-47 Underhill Ave., Flushing, Queens, N.Y.
Pvt. Carl Lenger and Sgt. Joseph Lenger (brothers)
Born Germany, 1919
Casualty Lists 9/21/44, 3/12/45
Long Island Star Journal 3/12/45
American Jews in World War II – 375

Other Incident (An aviator rescued after “ditching” in the Pacific Ocean…)

Lynch, Bertram Gerald, Capt., 0-669240, Bombardier / Navigator
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 497th Bomb Group, 871st Bomb Squadron
Aircraft ditched on January 3; Five survivors rescued by January 5
Mrs. Shirley (Golden) Lynch (wife), Ross D. Lynch (son), 1934 Spring Drive, Louisville, Ky.
MACR 10901, Aircraft: B-29 42-63418, “A square 50”, “JUMBO – KING OF THE SHOW”; Pilot: Capt. Howard M. Clifford; 11 crewmen – 5 survivors
Chaplain Cederbaum Files at Center for Jewish History, New York, N.Y.
American Jews in World War II – 129

______________________________

Captain Lynch was one of the survivors of the crew of “JUMBO – KING OF THE SHOW”, a B-29 which was ditched northwest of Saipan during the evening of January 3.  Though all crewmen were aboard the aircraft, uninjured, and at their assigned ditching positions at the time of the plane’s water landing, only five men eventually reached life rafts (four crewmen in one, and one in another).  These men were rescued by the USS Grayson on January 5 and 6, respectively. 

As stated in MACR 10901, “Capt. Clifford and crew ditched at 2127Z 3 January 1945 due to engine trouble and lack of gasoline.  Capts. Clifford and Lynch, Lt. Whitely and Sgt. Lodato were picked up 6 miles west of plane at 16 28 N, 144 38 E on 5 January 1945 by the Destroyer Grayson.  Sgt. Smith, who was alone in the raft, was picked up at 16 27 N, 144 19 E at 09 40 K 6 January 1945, by the Destroyer Grayson.  No one was seriously injured.  Capt. Lynch who was slightly injured is being hospitalized.”

“Upon interrogation, the following facts were obtained in regards to the other crew members who are still missing:
Lt. Heiden the co-pilot, was out of the water and last seen hanging on the wing.
Lt. Barnes wasn’t observed.
All the remaining crew members with the exception of Martin, Tail Gunner, are certain to have gotten out.
The search is still being continued.”

As is sometimes encountered in Missing Air Crew Reports covering aircraft lost at sea – where at least some men were rescued – the MACR only lists the next-of-kin and addresses of airmen still missing at the time the Report was actually created. 

Along with Captain Lynch, the survivors were:

Airplane Commander: Capt. Howard M. Clifford
Navigator-Bombardier: 2 Lt. Montford S. Whiteley
Radio Operator: Sgt. Piere V. Lodato
Gunner (Left Blister): Sgt. H.J. Smith, Jr.

Those presumed to have been killed in the ditching (or in the case of Lt. Heiden known to have survived, but not rescued) were: 

Co-Pilot: 2 Lt. Robert L. Heiden
Flight Engineer: 2 Lt. Harold C. Barnes
Radar Operator: Sgt. William R. Fast
Gunner (Central Fire Control): Sgt. Jack F. Estes
Gunner (Right Blister); Sgt. Oscar L. Niece, Jr.
Gunner (Tail): Sgt. Delmas D. Martin, Sr.

The following two images, from MACR 10901, show the crew roster, and next, the list of still-missing crewmen.

These three images (the format of which is doubtless immediately familiar to anyone who has researched MACRs) are post-war Casualty Questionnaires completed by Captain Lynch, and Sergeant Smith, in response to efforts to resolve the status of the missing crewmen. 

Remarkably, images of JUMBO exist in both photographic print (now, JPG) and film (now, MP4) format. 

The print?…  Presented below, is an official Army Air Force picture of the JUMBO’s nose art, which quite appropriately is a baby elephant carrying a bomb in his trunk.  The picture (number A-55324AC / A45730, for those interesting in a visit to the National Archives!) is show below, both in its original appearance as a photographic print attached to an 8 ½ by 11 filing card, and, as a cropped and enhanced digital image. 

The film?…  Show below, is a newsreel (clip # “638274042”) from the Sherman Grinberg Library Collection, credited to Pathe Newreels. at the Getty Image Archive.  With a creation date of December 1, 1944, the location is given as the Northern Marianas Islands.

Fortunately, the Getty Image website presents a complete breakdown of the subject matter in the one-minute-long film, which is listed as follows:

Movie World War II: B-29s and their names

1) Generals Emmett O’Donnell and Haywood Hansell, and, Vice Admiral John Hoover talking together
2) O’Donnell and Hansell walking
3) B-29 “DAUNTLESS DOTTY
4) 3 B-29s on tarmac
5) Crewman paints boxing dog on nose of B-29
6) Other painted B-29s:
6A) “JUMBO – KING OF THE SHOW
6B) Close-up of JUMBO
6C) Close-up of “Miss Behavin
6D) Close-up of “Special Delivery

JUMBO can be seen at the 41 – 53 second interval.

References

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Leivers, Dorothy (Editing and Revisions), Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division, 1941-1945, Avotaynu, Bergenfield, N.J., 2009

USS Swordfish

Crew list of the USS Swordfish (at “On Eternal Patrol”) http://www.oneternalpatrol.com/uss-swordfish-193.htm

Account of the loss of the USS Swordfish (at “On Eternal Patrol“)

Account of the loss of the USS Swordfish (by Ed Howard, at “Subsowespac.org”)

Julius N. Hurwitz

498th Bombardment Group Information (at “William C. Atkinson” / aka “AKINSOPHT”)

World War II Flight Training Museum and 63rd Army Air Forces Flying Training Detachment (at wwiiflighttraining.org)

The Reconstruction of Memory: Soldiers of Aufbau – Jews of The Yishuv at War

While the previous post – about Aufbau’s coverage of Jewish WW II military service – focused on general aspects of the creation of an autonomous Jewish fighting force – “this” post moves to the particular: Aufbau’s reporting on the contribution of the Jews of the Yishuv to the Allied war effort.

The primary topic covered by Aufbau in this context was the contribution of Yishuv Jewry to Britain’s armed forces, in the effort to halt the advance of the Afrika Korps, with the majority of articles of this nature having been published prior to England’s victory in the second battle of El Alamein, during late October – early November of 1942. 

Later articles are varied in their subject matter, with some pertaining to the participation of Jewish soldiers in religious services. 

Date Title
9/39 IZL – The Jewish National Army
10/39 Palestine’s Jewish Army – 50,000 Men Could be Put Under Arms
2/40 Most Destructive Units – Sidney S. Schiff uber die “Legion of Judea”  (“Most Destructive Units – Sidney S. Shiff on the “Legion of Judea””)
4/40 Training in Palästina (“Training in Palestine”) (Photo)
5/40 Fur Palästina und England! (“For Palestine and England!”) (Photo)
1240 Jüdische Scharfschutzen werden in Palästina ausgebildet (“Jewish Snipers are Trained in Palestine”) (Photo)
1/41 Neue Rekrutierungen in Palästina  (“New Recruits in Palestine”)
2/41 Cavalry in Palestine
5/41 Jüdisches Volk in Waffen – 135,000 Frauen und Manner zur Verteldigung Palästinas bereit  (“Jewish people in arms – 135,000 women and men ready for the defense of Palestine”)
5/41 Neue Truppen nach Palästina  (“New Troops to Palestine”)
7/41 Zum kampf fur Unabhangigkeit und Freiheit – Jüdische Soldaten der palästinenischen Armee auf einem Uebungsmarsch (“The fight for independence and freedom – Jewish soldiers of the Palestinian army on a training march”) (Photo)
8/41 Palästinas Jüden in Waffen (“Palestine’s Jews at Arms”) (Photo)
10/41 2 Palästina-Kongingent in Formierung  (“2 Palestine Contingents in Formation”)
12/41 Helden in Libyien – Palästinensische Truppen in entscheidenden Gefechten  (“Heroes in Libya – Palestinian troops in decisive battles”)
12/41 Judische Soldaten marschieren – Wahrend der in Palastina Mitte Oktober abgehaltenen Rekrutierungswoche haben judische Soldaten im Atadion von Tel-Aviv eine Parade abgehalten (“Jewish soldiers march – During the recruitment week held in Palestine in mid-October, Jewish soldiers held a parade in Tel Aviv Atadion”) (Photo)
6/42 Aufbruch zur Front: Taglich rucken neue jüdische Einheiten ins Feld (“Departure to the front: New Jewish units move into the field daily”) (Photo)
6/42 Unter der weiss-blauen Fahne auf der Wacht an der palästinenischen Kuste (“Under the white-blue flag on guard on the Palestinian coast”) (Photo)
8/42 Die WAACS in Erez Israel heissen PATS ((“The WAACS [Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps] in the Land of Israel are called PATS [Palestine Auxiliary Territorial Service]”) (Photo)
8/42 Palastinas erstes Regiment  (“Palestine’s First Regiment”)
8/42 In Schatten des Migdal David – Jüdische Soldaten des palästinenischen Buffs-Regiment trainieren zum Kampf gegen Rommel.  Von 584,000 Juden in Palästina dienen 47,000 Männer und Frauen in der Landesverteidigung  (“In Shadow of the Tower of David – Jewish soldiers of the Palestinian Buffs Regiment train to fight Rommel.  Of 584,000 Jews in Palestine, 47,000 men and women serve in the national defense”) (Photo)
9/42 Jüdisch-palästinensische Soldaten in New York (“Jewish Palestinian Soldiers in New York”) [Bonah, Lighter, Buttermilk, Black] (Photo)
11/42 Jüdische Freiwillige vom Buff-Regiment im Angriff (“Jewish volunteers from the Buff Regiment on the attack”) (Photo)
11/42 Palästinensische Schützen: Blaue Bohnen für Rommel (“Palestinian shooters: Blue beans for Rommel”) (Photo)
11/42 Das Palästina-Regiment wird ausgerustet  (“The Palestine Regiment is being organized”)
1/43 Die jüdische Frau marschiert – Mitglieder der PATS bei einer Demonstration durch die Strassen Tel Avivs (“The Jewish woman march – Members of the PATS in a demonstration through the streets of Tel Aviv”) (Photo)
9/43 Palästinensische Matrosen, die als Freiwillige in der englischen Navy dienen, tanzen in ihrer Freizeit eine Horrah (“Palestinian sailors serving as volunteers in the English Navy dance a hora in their free time”) (Photo)
9/43 Jewish Girls as Ambulance Drivers
12/43 Die jüdische Frau kampft mit – In einer Minenfabrik in Palästina helfen bei der Herstellung und Fullung von Landminen (“The Jewish woman is fighting – In a mine factory in Palestine help in the manufacture and filling of land mines”) (Photo)
1/44 Palästina Bataillone nach Europa  (“Palestinian Battalions to Europe”)
1/44 Jüdische WAAF in Palästina – Ein Mitglied der WAAF mit der hebraischen Achselklappe “Erez Israel” (“Jewish WAAF in Palestine – A member of the WAAF with the Hebrew epaulet “Erez Israel”) [Photo: British Combine] (Photo)
6/44 May We Present – Mrs. Jenny Blumenfeld – Who Tells of Palestine’s Women at War
9/44 Palästina-Truppen in England  (“Palestine Troops in England”)
3/45 Drei Freunde in Palästina (“Three friends in Palestine”) [Heart, Popper, Salm] (Photo)

Beyond these articles, there is much published literature on the subject of the contribution of the Yishuv – in terms of military manpower, production of war material, scientific research, and economic and support – to the Allied war effort.    

A notable wartime publication in this regard is Pierre van Paassen’s 1943 The Forgotten Ally (published by the Dial Press in 1943).  One particular chapter of this book – “The Best-Kept Secret of the War” – covers this topic in an illuminating and (even in 2017…) and surprisingly relevant fashion. 

The chapters of van Paassen’s book are:

Author’s Preface (5-6)
Chapter I – There Are No More Prophets! (9-48)
Chapter II – Prelude to Palestine’s Liberation (49-104)
Chapter III – Britain’s Role in Palestine (105-174)
Chapter IV – The Best-Kept Secret of the War (175-236)
Chapter V – Imperialism’s Reward (237-303)
Chapter VI – The Solution (304-343)

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The image below shows the front cover of the 1943 (first) edition of The Forgotten Ally…

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…and, here is the back cover, with van Paassen’s portrait.

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Another book, Israel Cohen’s short but substantive 1942 Britain’s Nameless Ally (published by W.H. Allen & Co., Ltd., Publishers, of London) presents information about the contribution of Yishuv Jewry to the Allied war effort in a more detailed and stylistically different fashion than van Paassen.  Statistics about the numbers of Yishuv volunteers serving in the Allied military (particularly Britain’s military) are interspersed and accompanied by quotations of and comments by notable figures in Allied military, political, and news circles.  By definition – by – timing (this book was released in 1942, after all) coverage of Jewish military service (in Chapter III, “At The Battle-Fronts”) is limited to military activity in the Western Desert, at Tobruk, in Eritrea, at Keren, in Greece, in Syria, and also in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, while attention is also accorded to Jewish military service in the Czech armed forces.   

As a nice touch, the book includes 10 photographs showing military and industrial activity in the wartime Yishuv, and, a frontpiece image of Haifa.     

The book’s chapters are:

Chapter I – The Jewish People’s Offer (1-9)
Chapter II – The Rallying of Jewish Volunteers (10-17)
Chapter III – At the Battle-Fronts (18-28)
Chapter IV – The Economic Contributions (29-34)
Chapter V – Scientific and Technical Contributions (35-37)
Chapter VI – The Government and the Jewish Offer (38-46)
Appeal by the Jewish Agency Executive (47)

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A beautiful view of Haifa, the leading image in Britain’s Nameless Ally.

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Jewish Settlement Police, and Jewish military personnel (in training).

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Of the ten photographs in Britain’s Nameless Ally, six pertain to manufacturing activity in a wartime context.  The two illustrations below are representative of these images.

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In contemporary terms, Yoav Gelber’s Jewish Palestinian Volunteering in the British Army During the Second World War (published by Yad Itzhak Ben-Zvi Publications, Jerusalem) is an essential – probably “the” essential – work on this topic.  The work is comprised of four volumes, one of which (Jewish Volunteers in British Units) has been of tremendous help in my posts concerning female ATS volunteers, and, soldiers of the 462nd General Transport Company lost in the sinking of the HMS Erinpura.  Unfortunately (!) the volumes have not yet been translated into English…   

The volumes are:

Volume I – Volunteering and its Role in Zionist Policy 1939-1942, 1979
Volume II – The Struggle for a Jewish Army, 1981
Volume III – The Standard Bearers, 1983
Volume IV – Jewish Volunteers in British Units, 1984

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Another relevant publication (just discovered on worldcat.org, but not yet read!) is Anat Granit-Hacohen’s Hebrew Women Join the Forces: Jewish Women From Palestine in the British Forces During the Second World War.  Translated by Ora Cummings, the book was published by Vallentine Mitchell in 2017. 

The above sources are in German, English, and Hebrew.  But, there is another publication which covered Jewish WW II military service, albeit in Yiddish: That is Eynikayt, the official newspaper of the Soviet Union’s Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. 

In its twentieth issue, published on December 17, 1942, the paper included two photographs relating to military service of Yishuv Jewry.  One picture shows Jewish soldiers in the British army during training near Libya.  The other shows a group of women soldiers under inspection by their sergeant.  This latter image is remarkable in presenting the full names of these female soldiers, along with their places of birth or national origin.  Unfortunately – ! – neither the photographer nor the official source are listed for either image. 

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Eynikayt, December 17, 1942:  Page 1.

____________________

Eynikayt, December 17, 1942:  Page 4.

____________________

“Jewish youths in the British army, not far from Libya, perfect their military skills in order to be deployed soon against the Fascists.”

____________________

“Jewish girls in a British regiment in Palestine (right to left): Ida Hecht (from Czechoslovakia), Khave Friedman (from Germany), Margarita Kahan (from Poland), Regina Altkorn (from Belgium), Yulia Abramson (from Carpathian Ruthenia) and Shoshana Shulman (from Palestine)”

____________________

Future posts will cover other aspects of Aufbau’s reporting on Jewish WW II military service.

The Reconstruction of Memory: Soldiers of Aufbau – The Struggle for A Jewish Army

In my prior post, “Aufbau: The Reconstruction of Memory”, I described the German anti-Nazi WW II Exile Newspaper Aufbau (“Construction”) in terms of its coverage of Jewish military service during the Second World War.  The newspaper reported upon the military service of Jewish soldiers in detail – often great detail – yet that coverage was set within the wider context of the political, psychological, social, and moral impetus for the creation of a Jewish fighting organization – a Jewish fighting organization with at least some degree of political and military autonomy.
Discussions of and news articles about this subject were manifested in many different ways.

Some items took the form of reports about the participation of Jewish soldiers in the armed forces of the varied Allied powers; a series of four articles in January and February of 1944, under the heading “1.5 Million Jews are Fighting”, covering facets of the totality of Jewish military service in the Allied armed forces; reports on Jews in the Maquis; descriptions of the reactions and opinions (both pro and con) of political leaders and the news media regarding the creation of a Jewish fighting force, and finally, commencing in September, 1944 and most prominently appearing after the war’s end – in August and September of 1945 – a series of articles about the Jewish Brigade Group.

This post presents the titles of 139 such items in Aufbau, as well as their month of their publication.  I’ve translated some, which I hope to bring you in a future post. 

Or, more accurately, posts!

Month and Year Title
9/39 IZL – The Jewish National Army
10/39 Palestine’s Jewish Army – 50,000 Men Could be Put Under Arms
10/39 Jüdische Freiwillige  (“Jewish Volunteers”)
1/40 35% Jüden in der Polnischen Legion  (“35% Jews in the Polish Legion”)
1/40 Deutschjüdische Freiwillige in der Fremdenlegion  (“German Jewish Volunteers in the Foreign Legion”)
1/40 Jüdische M.G.-Kompagnien gegen Hitler  (“Jewish machine gun company against Hitler)
2/40 Most Destructive Units – Sidney S. Schiff uber die “Legion of Judea”  (“Most Destructive Units – Sidney S. Shiff on the “Legion of Judea””)
2/40 Belgien nimmt keine ausländischen Freiwilligen  (“Belgium does not take foreign volunteers”)
5/40 Jüden an der Westfront – Pessachtage in der Maginotlinie  (“Jews on the western front – Pesach days in the Maginot Line”)
6/40 Für die Alliierten und eine jüdische Armee  (“For the Allies and a Jewish Army”)
6/40 Eine jüdische ARMEE?  (“A Jewish ARMY?”)
9/40 Die Plane für eine jüdische Armee  (“The Plan for a Jewish Army”)
10/40 A Jewish Army Throughout the World
11/40 Our Soldiers, If We Would Only Take Them
11/40 Zur Frage der jüdischen Armee  (“On the Question of the Jewish Army”)
11/40 London Sees Jewish Army Soon
1/41 Glänzende Kämpfer – Ein Lob der Refugee-Pioniere in England  (“Shining Fighters – A Praise to the Refugee Pioneers in England”)
1/41 Neue Rekrutierungen in Palästina  (“New Recruits in Palestine”)
1/41 1400 Refugee-Aerzte im britischen Kriegsdienst  (“1400 Refugee Physicians in the British War Service)
1/41 Die jüdische Armee – Englische Bereitschaft zu ihrer Aufstellung  (“The Jewish Army – English Readiness for their Formation”)
2/41 Jewish Army
2/41 Cavalry in Palestine
3/41 Jüdische Truppen in Aktion – Sie Schlagen die Italiener – Blau-Weiss neben dem Union Jack (Der erste authentische Bericht)  (“Jewish troops in action – They beat the Italians – Blue-and-white next to the Union Jack (The first authentic report)”)
3/41 Wir kämpfen in Griechenland  (“We are Fighting in Greece”)
3/41 Jüdische Armee – Jüdische Republik  (“Jewish Army – Jewish Republic”)
3/41 Jüden im Griechenkrieg  (“Jews in the Greek War”)
4/41 England rekrutiert im Ausland  (“England Recruited Abroad”)
4/41 Die Frage der jüdischen Armee  (“The Question of the Jewish Army”)
5/41 Jüdisches Volk in Waffen – 135,000 Frauen und Manner zur Verteldigung Palästinas bereit  (“Jewish people in arms – 135,000 women and men ready for the defense of Palestine”)
5/41 Neue Truppen nach Palästina  (“New Troops to Palestine”)
5/41 Doch noch eine jüdsiche Armee?  (“But another Jewish army?”)
7/41 For a Jewish Army
8/41 The World Respects a Maccabaen
10/41 2 Palästina-Kongingent in Formierung  (“2 Palestinian Contingents in Formation”)
10/41 Jewish Youth Enlist – Die Frage einer jüdischen Armee  (“Jewish Youth Enlist – The question of a Jewish army”)
10/41 Der unbekannte jüdische Soldat  (“The Unknown Jewish Soldier”)
11/41 Why a Jewish Army?
11/41 Die jüdische Armee – der Beginn einer jüdischen Politik? (Hannah Arendt)  (“The Jewish army – the beginning of a Jewish policy?”)
11/41 Jüdsiches Kadetten – Fliegerkorps in Ottawa aufgestellt  (“Jewish Cadets – Flying Corps Established in Ottawa”)
11/41 Refugees und Soldaten – Zornige Reden auf der Inter-American Jewish Conference  (“Refugees and Soldiers – Angry speeches at the Inter-American Jewish Conference”)
12/41 Helden in Libyien – Palästinensische Truppen in entscheidenden Gefechten  (“Heroes in Libya – Palestinian troops in decisive battles”)
12/41 Refugees in the British Army – A Visit to a Pioneer Camp
12/41 England and the Jewish Army
12/41 Jüdische Armee wieder aktuell  (“The Jewish army is again up to date”)
1/42 5,000 Refugees im Pionierkorps  (“5,000 Refugees in the Pioneer Corps”)
1/42 Eine jüdische Armee?  (“A Jewish Army?”)
1/42 Unknown Soldiers
1/42 Kontroverse uber die jüdische Armee – Die Reaktion auf den Leitertikel der “New York Times”  (“Controversy over the Jewish Army – The Reaction to the Leadership of the “New York Times””)
2/42 Der Kampf um die Jüdische Armee  (“The Struggle for the Jewish Army”)
3/42 Wer Ist Das “Committee for a Jewish Army”?  (“Who is the “Committee for a Jewish Army”?)
3/42 Zur Verteidigung des “Committee for a Jewish Army”  (“To Defend the “Committee for a Jewish Army”)
3/42 With the J.A.F. in Far Rockaway, L.I. – Girl About Town (Ruth Karpf)
3/42 Regierungs-Pläne zur Schaffung von Freiheits-Legionen – Drei Nationen – eine Meinung  (“Government plans to create freedom legions – Three nations – an opinion”)
5/42 Die New Yorker Zionisten-Konferenz lasst die Frage der jüdischen Armee ungelost  (“The New York Zionist Conference leaves the question of the Jewish army unresolved”)
5/42 70,000 Ex-Aliens Help Britain – Immigrant Soldiers Fighting Abroad
5/42 The Jewish Army Nevertheless
6/42 Last Call for a Jewish Army – An Appeal to “Aufbau” by Pierre Van Paassen
7/42 England immer noch gegen eine jüdische Armee; England lehnt weiterhin eine jüdische Armee ab  (“England still opposed a Jewish army; England continues to reject a Jewish army”)
7/42 The Fighting Jew – By H.I. Phillips
7/42 Die Tragödie des “Unbekannten Soldaten” (Nahum Goldmann)  (“The Tragedy of the “Unknown Soldier””)
8/42 Inadequate Solution – Statement to “Aufbau” by Stephen S. Wise
8/42 HALFWAY MEETS OUR DEMANDS… – Statement to “Aufbau” by DAVID WERTHEIM
8/42 Besuch aus Tobruk – Polnisch-jüdische Soldaten auf Urlaub in New York  (“Visit from Tobruk – Polish Jewish soldiers on vacation in New York”)
8/42 Palastinas erstes Regiment  (“Palestine’s First Regiment”)
9/42 Ein Kampfer fur die Jüdische Armee  (“A camphor for the Jewish army”)
10/42 Immigrantinnen in Uniform – National Security Women’s Corps grundet ein “Allied Unit”  (“Immigrants in Uniform – National Security Women’s Corps is an “Allied Unit””)
11/42 Das Palästina-Regiment wird ausgerustet  (“The Palestine Regiment is being organized”)
11/42 In Vorderster Front  (“In the Front”)
12/42 Grant Me 200,000 Jewish Boys
12/42 England weiter gegen Jüdische Armee  (“England continued against the Jewish army”)
12/42 Luncheon of the Committee for a Jewish Army
1/43 Pionierkompagnie aus Deutschen und Oesterreichern in Afrika  (“Pioneer company from Germans and Austrians in Africa”)
1/43 President Roosevelt ueber das oesterreichische Bataillon  (“President Roosevelt on the Austrian battalion”)
1/43 Jan Christian Smuts für die Jüdische Armee  (“Jan Christian Smuts for the Jewish Army”)
2/43 Battle Song for a Jewish Bombardier – Lawrence Upton
3/43 We Will Never Die
4/43 Kopf Hoch, Kamerad! – Das Epos der deutschen und österreichischen Antifaschisten in der britischen Armee – Ein jüdischer Boxmeister in Uniform  (“Head high, comrade! – The epic of the German and Austrian anti-fascists in the British army – A Jewish boxing master in uniform”)
6/43 The War and the Jew (book review)
6/43 Jüdische Kommandos trainieren  (“Training Jewish Commanders”)
8/43 Jüdisches Regiment auf Malta  (“Jewish Regiment in Malta”)
8/43 Unbekannte Helden – Jüdsiche Kampfer unter der Trikolore – Englische Uniformen, deutsche Waffen, und ein Gedanke: ran an den Feind! (“Unknown heroes – Jewish fighters under the tricolor – English uniforms, German weapons, and a thought: ran to the enemy!”)
8/43 In deutschen Uniformen (“In German Uniforms”)
8/43 Guns in the Middle East
9/43 Jewish Girls as Ambulance Drivers
10/43 Rosch-Haschonoh-Feiern in der Armee – In allen Ländern un an allen Fronten werden Gottesdienste abgehalten  (“Rosh Hashanah Celebrations in the Army – Worship services are held in all countries on all fronts”)
11/43 Nachricht über den Tod eines Pioniers in Nordafrika  (“Message about the death of a pioneer in North Africa”)
12/43 Guerillas unter jüdischer Flagge – Fünftausen Kämpfer  (“Guerrillas among the Jewish flag – fifty-five fighters”)
1/7/44 Palästina Bataillone nach Europa  (“Palestinian Battalions to Europe”)
1/44 1.5 Millionen Jüden kampfen mit – 500,000 aus U.S.A. – 34% aller wehrpflichtigen Immigranten in Waffen  (“1.5 Million Jews are Fighting – 500,000 from U.S.A. – 34% of all Conscientious Immigrants at Arms”)
1/44 1.5 Millionen Jüden kampfen mit – II. Die jüdischen Generale in der russischen Armee  (“1.5 Million Jews are Fighing – The Jewish Generals in the Russian Army”)
1/44 1.5 Millionen Jüden kampfen mit – III. 8000 Fleiger in der Royal Air Force  (“1.5 Million Jews are Fighting – 8,000 Fliers in the Royal Air Force”)
2/44 1.5 Millionen Jüden kampfen mit – IV. Jüden in der Kanadischen Armee  (“1.5 Million Jews are Fighting – IV. Jews in the Canadian army”)
2/44 Jüdische Helfer-Kommandos für Europa  (“Jewish helpers for Europe”)
2/44 Tod nur mi der Waffe in der Hand – Eine Proklamation jüdsicher Guerillas  (“Death only with the weapon in hand – A proclamation of Jewish guerrillas”)
3/44 Jüdische Armee neu gefordert – Nahum Goldmann berichtet zur Lage des jüdischen Volkes  (“Jewish army demanded again – Nahum Goldmann reports on the situation of the Jewish people”)
5/44 The Greatest Seder I Ever Witnessed – Cpt. Wilfred C. Hulse
6/44 Polnisch-jüdische Soldaten kampfen in Italien  (“Polish Jewish soldiers are fighting in Italy”)
6/44 May We Present – Mrs. Jenny Blumenfeld – Who Tells of Palestine’s Women at War  (“May We Present – Mrs. Jenny Blumenfeld – Who Tells of Palestine’s Women at War”)
6/44 Die “unbekannte Division” singt – In Tobruk gegründet – Erstes Auftreten in Neapel  (“The “unknown division” sings – Founded in Tobruk – First appearance in Naples”)
9/44 Palästina-Truppen in England  (“Palestinian Troops in England”)
9/44 Jüdische Brigade fur Europa  (“Jewish Brigade for Europe”)
9/44 Rosch Haschonoh an allen Fronten  (“Rosh Hashanah on all Fronts”)
9/44 Bataillone unter dem Davidsstern – Premier Smuts ernennt die Offiziere  (“Battalions under the Star of David – Premier Smuts appoints the Officers”)
10/44 Von der Armee zur Brigade – Eine kleine Erfüllung, aber immerhin eine Erfüllung  (“From the army to the brigade – A small fulfillment, but still a fulfillment”)
10/44 Soldaten-Jom Kippur in Deutschland  (“Soldiers’ – Yom Kippur in Germany”)
10/44 Jüdische Brigade als Besatzung  (“Jewish Brigade as a Crew”)
10/44 Der Kommandant der Jüdischen Brigade  (“The Commander of the Jewish Brigade”)
11/44 British Jewry Welcomes Jewish Brigade Group
11/44 Jewish Agency wirbt für die Jewish brigade – Auch Maquis-Leute bewerben sich  (“Jewish Agency promotes the Jewish brigade – Maquis people also apply”)
11/44 Arabische Brigade versus Jüdische Brigade  (“Arab Brigade versus Jewish Brigade”)
11/44 Jüdischer Brigadier befehligte griechische Guerillas  (“The Jewish Brigadier commanded Greek guerrillas”)
11/44 Südafrikanische Offiziere für die Jüdische Brigade  (“South African officers for the Jewish Brigade”)
12/44 Gestern Refugees – heute Soldaten – Ruhmestaten von Immigranten in der americanischen Armee (Backenheimer, Bruner, Frank, Goetz, Katz, Liebenstein, Monash, Schleimer, Stern)  (“Yesterday, Refugees – Today Soldiers – Glory of Immigrants in the American Army)”
1/45 Die jüdische brigade ist kampfbereit  (“The Jewish Brigade is ready for battle”)
3/45 General Benjamin fordert verstärkte Rekrutierung – Noch 23 andere Palästina-Formationen – Ausbildung der Jüdischen Brigade in Aegypten  (“General Benjamin calls for more recruitment – Still 23 other Palestinian formations – Training of the Jewish Brigade in Egypt”)
3/45 Die neue jüdische Brigade eingesetzt – Der erste Bericht über die Feuertaufe der Brigade – General Clarks Willkomensgruss – Kundgebung der Jewish Agency und des National Council  (“The new Jewish brigade set up – The first report on the firing brigade of the brigade – General Clarks Willkomensgruss – Rally of the Jewish Agency and the National Council”)
4/45 Von Rheydt bis Iwo Jima – Pessach an der Front  (“From Rheydt to Iwo Jima – Passover at the front”)
4/45 10,000 Jungens brauchen uns (Ein Aufruf, der Alle angeht:) – ‘Aufbau’ und ‘Our Boys Club’ starten eine Sonder-Aktion fur die “Judische Brigade”  (“10,000 boys need us (a call to everyone) – ‘Construction’ and ‘Our Boys Club’ are launching a special action for the “Jewish Brigade””)
4/45 Soldaten feiern Pessach auf dem Indischen Ozean  (“Soldiers celebrate Passover on the Indian Ocean”)
4/45 Fahnenweihe der “Jewish Brigade”  (“Flagship of the Jewish Brigade”)
4/45 Jüdische brigade kampft gegen Nazis  (“Jewish Brigade is Fighting the Nazis”)
5/45 Mit der “Jüdischen Brigade” an der Front  (“With the “Jewish Brigade” at the front”)
5/145 Die jüdische Flagge weht über Dachau  (“The Jewish flag is blowing over Dachau”)
6/45 Mit der “Jüdischen Brigade” nach Oesterreich  (“With the “Jewish Brigade” to Austria”)
8/45 Jüdische Brigade Nach Belgien  (“Jewish Brigade to Belgium”)
8/45 Jüdische Brigade als Palästina-Garnison – Vorher vermutlich Teil der Besatzungstruppe in Deutschland  (“Jewish Brigade as a Palestine garrison – Formerly part of the occupation group in Germany”)
8/45 Die “Dachauer” kommen zurück – Erlebnisse eines jüdischen Soldaten in Bayern und Oesterreich (Pfc. Hans Lichtwitz)  (“The “Dachauer” come back – Experiences of a Jewish soldier in Bavaria and Austria”)
8/45 Teile der Jüdischen Briagde nach Holland  (“Parts of the Jewish Briagde to Holland”)
9/45 Notschrei britischer Refugee-Soldaten  (“Emergency cry of British Refugee soldiers”)
9/45 Ruckkehr der Kriegsveteranen nach Palästina  (“Return of war veterans to Palestine”)
9/45 Der Jüde als Soldat – Bemerkungen zu Ralph Nunbergs Buch “The Fighting Jew”  (“The Jew as a Soldier – Remarks on Ralph Nunberg’s book “The Fighting Jew””)
9/45 Jüdische Brigade begleitet Palästina-Reisende  (“Jewish brigade accompanies Palestine travelers”)
9/45 Our Boys from the Jewish Brigade Write to Aufbau – Following are excerpts from dozens of letters which Aufbu received from Palestinian soldiers serving with the Jewish brigade
9/45 Ein Tag mit der Jüdischen Brigade – Als Besatzung in der belgischen Stadt Tournai  (“A day with the Jewish Brigade – As a crew in the Belgian town of Tournai”)
10/45 Blau-Weis-Marsch durch Deutschland (Pfc. Hans Lichtwitz)  (“Blue-Weis-Marsch through Germany”)
11/45 Von der jüdischen Brigade  (“From the Jewish Brigade”)
11/45 The Oath of the Jewish Brigade
11/45 Weltverband jüdischer Kriegsveteranen  (“World Association of Jewish War Veterans”)
2/46 Preisausschreiben für jüdische Soldaten  (“Price List for Jewish Soldiers”)

 

The Reconstruction of Memory: Soldiers of Aufbau

Aufbau: The Reconstruction of Memory

As irony abounds in the histories of nations, so it does in the lives of men.

During World War Two, a striking irony could sometimes be found among Jewish military personnel in the Allied armed forces.  Some Jewish soldiers, at one time citizens of Germany and Austria, and subsequently refugees and emigrants from those countries, might – through a combination of intention and chance – find themselves arrayed in battle against the Axis.   This circumstance, a melding of civil obligation, moral responsibility, idealism, motivated by a personal sense of justice, was deeply symbolic aspect of Jewish military service during the Second World War. 

For the United States, a perusal of both the Jewish press and the general news media from 1942 through 1945 reveals occasional articles – and inevitably, casualty notices – covering such servicemen.  Such news items called specific attention to the circumstances behind a soldier’s arrival in the United States, and often extended to accounts of his family’s pre-war life in Germany or Austria.  This was not limited to the American news media.  The Jewish Chronicle of England was replete with articles covering the military service of Jewish refugee soldiers in the armed forces of England and British Commonwealth countries, including – before Israel’s re-establishment in 1948 – British military units comprised of personnel (often refugees) from the pre-State Yishuv. 

In the American news media, a striking example of one such news items appeared in the Philadelphia Inquirer on June 13, 1943.

GERMAN REFUGEE MISSING IN ACTION

A 22-year-old German refugee who fled his native Leipzig in 1935 to escape Nazi persecution is one of four Philadelphians reported last night by the War Department as missing in action.

He is Corporal Maurice Derfler, of 1601 Ruscomb St., worker in a Philadelphia clothing factory before he entered the Army Air Forces on March 28, 1942.

WROTE TO FIANCEE

Derfler has been missing since May 19, just five days after his fiancée, Mildred Roush, 19, of 4813 N. Franklin St., received a letter from him, stating that he was “going on a dangerous mission” but felt sure that he would return.  For, he explained, he was looking forward to his furlough next September, when he and Miss Roush would be married.

The next message was the War Department communication, which Abraham Roush, prospective father-in-law of the soldier, received on May 29.  The message stated that Derfler, a radio operator in a Consolidated Liberator bomber, had failed to return from a mission.

FIANCEE CONFIDENT

Miss Roush, who is confident that Derfler will return, “and I still will be waiting,” could tell little of her fiancee’s flight from his native Germany.  “He didn’t like to talk about it.  It must have been an ordeal for him.  He keeps it as his secret.”

Derfler, Miss Roush recalled, arrived in Philadelphia with a group of other refugees.  His one desire was to get into the American forces for a “crack at the Germans.”  He was naturalized in September of 1941 and the following March entered the service.  Ironically, the Air Forces sent him into the Pacific area.

Corporal Derfler served as a radio operator in the 400th Bomb Squadron of the 90th (“Jolly Rogers”) Bomb Group of the 5th Air Force.  His aircraft, a B-24D Liberator (serial number 41-29269) piloted by 1 Lt. Donald L. Almond, was conducting a solo daylight reconnaissance mission along the eastern coast of New Guinea.  It was intercepted by five Japanese pilots of the 24th Sentai, who were flying Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Japanese for “Peregrine Falcon”; Allied code-name “Oscar”) fighter planes.  One of these aviators, Sergeant Hikoto Sato, was killed during the engagement when his fighter rammed the B-24.     

As the aerial engagement began, the B-24 radioed a message – likely transmitted by Corporal Derfler himself – that it was under attack by Japanese fighters. 

Five minutes later, another radio message reported that the plane was going down. 

No trace of the plane or crew – presumed to have crashed near Karkar Island, off the northeastern coast of New Guinea – has ever been found. 

The names of the B-24’s ten crewmen are commemorated at the Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery, in the Philippines.  

Corporal Derfler (serial number 33157713) received the Air Medal and Purple Heart.  In 1943, he was mentioned in The American Hebrew (August 20), the Chicago Jewish Chronicle (August 27), and The Jewish Times (Delaware County, Pennsylvania) (September 3). 

Initially assigned to the famed 44th (“Flying Eightballs”) Bomb Group – which, ironically, flew bombing missions against Germany – Cpl. Derfler was the only member of his family to have escaped from Germany. 

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In terms of detailed information about the military service of German-Jewish refugees in the armed forces of the Allies – in general – and United States in particular, one publication stands out:  Aufbau, or in translation, “Construction”, or “Building Up”.  Published between 1934 and 2004, the newspaper was founded by the German-Jewish Club, later re-named the “New World Club”.  Originally intended as a monthly newsletter for the club, the periodical changed markedly when Manfred George was nominated as editor in 1939.  George transformed the publication to one of the leading anti-Nazi periodicals of the German Exile Press (Exilpresse) Group, increasing its circulation from 8,000 to 40,000.  According to the description of Aufbau at Archiv.org (and as can be solidly verified from perusal of its contents), writings of many well-known personalities appeared in its pages.  (Three names among many: Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, and Stefan Zweig.)  According to Wikipedia, after having been published in New York City through 2004, the periodical subsequently began publishing in Zurich.  However, the given link (http://www.aufbauonline.com/) seems to be inoperative. 

A catalog record for Aufbau – and 29 other periodicals comprising German Exile Press publications can, appropriately, be found at the website of the German National Library – Deutsch National Bibliothek. A screen-shot of the catalag record for Aufbau is shown below:

When the Aufbau was reviewed in 2010, it could be accessed directly through the DNB’s website.  However, by now – 2017 – it seems to be only available through archive.org.  This is the first page of Archive.org catalog record for the publication:

And, here is the second:

Unlike the DNB website, which (as I recall?…) allowed access and viewing of the publication on an extraordinarily useful issue-by-issue and even page-by-page basis, users accessing Aufbau at Archive.org cannot view the periodical at such a fine level of informational ”clarity”.  (Despite being able to scroll through and view volumation and numbering of all issues in Archive.org’s “View EAD” window.)  Rather, once a hyperlink for any issue is selected, the entire content for that year is then displayed in a new window as a single file – and that year’s full content is also downloaded as a single PDF, or in other formats.

The image below shows issue records for Aufbau as they appear at the Archive.org catalog record.  (The format of this information is representative of, and identical to, issue records for all other years of publication.) 

And…  This image shows the interface for 1942 issues of Aufbau, by which the publication – encompassing that entire year – can be viewed online, or downloaded.  Other years of publication are displayed in a similar manner. 

PDF file sizes for wartime editions of Aufbau are:

1941 (Volume 7): 453 MB
1942 (Volume 8): 566 MB
1943 (Volume 9): 513 MB
1944 (Volume 10): 530 MB
1945 (Volume 11): 353 MB

Published on a weekly basis, Aufbau provides overlapping windows upon American Jewry, German Jewry (particularly of course, those Jews fortunate enough to have escaped from Germany), and world Jewry, through its coverage of political, social, and intellectual developments of the late 1930s and early 1940s.  News covered by the publication pertained to all facets of life, “in general”: current events; literary, cultural, cinematic, theatrical, and social news; and, innumerable essays and opinion pieces. 

Intriguingly, the paper’s news coverage and editorial content – at least encompassing 1939 through 1946 – suggests intertwining, competing, and parallel aspects of thought that have persisted since the halting beginnings of Jewish “emancipation” only a few centuries ago:  One one hand, a staunch and unapologetic emphasis on Jewish identity and Zionism.  On the other, the subsuming of Jewish identity within a wider world of (ostensibly) democratic universalism. 

(Ah, but I digress.  That is another long, and continuing story…) 

Back, to the topic at hand…

Though Aufbau’s central focus was not Jewish military service as such, the newspaper nonetheless serves as a tremendously rich repository of information – genealogical; biographical; historical – about the experiences of Jewish soldiers during the Second World War.  In that sense, news items in Aufbau relevant to Jewish military service falls into these general themes: 

1) Lists of awards and honors;
2) News about and accounts of military service by American Jewish soldiers; similarly-themed news items about military service of Jews in other Allied nations (the Soviet Union, British Commonwealth countries, France, and Poland);
3) Detailed biographies of soldiers wounded, killed, and missing in action;
4) The campaign for the establishment of some form of autonomous Jewish fighting force;
5) The activities of the Jewish Brigade Group;
6) The military service of Jews from the Yishuv in the armed forces of Britain and other Commonwealth nations;
7) Zionism – the drive to re-establish a Jewish nation-state. 

These items are often accompanied by photographs of the specific servicemen in question, or, thematically relevant illustrations.  Of course, given the origin and ethos of Aufbau, from editor to publisher; from correspondents to stringers to contributors; in its coverage of Jewish military service, the newspaper placed great – if not central – emphasis, on Jewish soldiers whose families originated in Germany, and who were fortunate enough to have found citizenship in the United States.

The following five categories of articles in Aufbau are immediately relevant to the seven “themes” listed above:

1) The Struggle for a Jewish Army – 139 articles
2) Jews of the Yishuv at War – 33 articles
3) Jewish Prisoners of War – 10 articles
4) Jewish Military Casualties – 132 articles
5) The Jewish Brigade – 37 articles
6) Photographs (primarily of soldiers, yet including other subjects) – 252

…while the following three categories of items, though not directly related to Jewish WW II military service, are very relevant to the “tenor of the times”…

1) antisemitism / Judeophobia – 20 articles
2) Random News Items About the Second World War – 31 articles
3) Acculturation and Assimilation – 48 articles

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As examples of such news items in Aufbau – yet more than mere examples; to bestow symbolic tribute upon the many German-Jewish soldiers who served in the Allied armed forces – news items about two WW II German-Jewish soldiers (Army Air Force S/Sgt. Heinz H. Thannhauser and Army PFC George E. Rosing) follow. 

Aufbau’s biography of S/Sgt. Thannhauser is quite detailed, probably due to his family’s prominence in the German-Jewish immigrant community, and, the world of art   Even before he entered the Army Air Force, Heinz’s background and accomplishments portended a remarkable future, if only his bomber had taken a slightly different course before before a Sardinian sunrise on August 15, 1944…

Heinz was the son of Justin K. (5/7/82-12/26/76) and Kate (Levi) (5/24/94-1959) Thannhauser, grandson of Heinrich Thannhauser, and the lineal descendant of Baruch Loeb Thannhauser, his father and grandfather originally having been residents of Munich, where – as art dealers – they owned the Thannhauser Galleries, specializing in Modernist art.  Justin moved to Paris in 1937 with his family to escape the Third Reich, and after the outbreak of the Second World War, to Switzerland.  They fled to the United States in 1941, establishing themselves in New York City, where Justin opened a private gallery, the initial core of which comprised a number of works that he had managed to bring with him to America. 

Due to Heinz’s death, and the doubly tragic passing of his only other child Michel in 1952, Justin cancelled plans to open a public gallery.  He remained a resident of New York until 1971, operating his gallery, collecting art, and assisting museums and galleries with exhibitions and acquisitions.  In recognition and honor of his sons and their late mother Kate – as well as his support of artistic progress – Justin’s collection was bequeathed to the Guggenheim Museum in 1963.  Due to the scope, size, and centrality of the collection, the Guggenheim established the Thannhauser Wing in 1965, where the original components of the collection, as well as additional works, are now on display. 

Justin passed away in 1976, his only survivor having been his second wife, Hilde

______________________________

A radio operator in the 441st Bomb Squadron of the 320th Bomb Group (12th Air Force), Heinz and his seven fellow crewmen were killed when their B-26C Marauder (serial 41-107711, squadron number “02”, nicknamed “Becky”) crashed during take-off from Decimomannu, Sardinia, on August 15, 1944.  The plane flew directly into the side of Monte Azza, 2 kilometers from the town of Serrenti, in the pre-dawn darkness.  The aircraft had been one of 34 B-26s dispatched to bomb a beach at Baie de Cavalaire (north of Saint Tropaz), France.  As revealed in the 320th Bomb Group’s report of that mission, one other B-26s was lost on take-off, fortunately with all crewmen surviving.    

Heinz’s name would appear in an official casualty list published in October 21, 1944,

______________________________

The illustration below, from Victor Tannehill’s Boomerang! – Story of the 320th Bombardment Group, shows what I believe is “the” actual Becky: 41-107711.  The circular emblem just behind the bombardier’s position is the insignia of the 441st Bomb Squadron, while rows of bomb symbols painted to the right of the plane’s nickname denote sorties against the enemy. 

______________________________

This image, from Vintage Leather Jackets, shows a beautiful original example of a 441st Bomb Squadron uniform patch, which would have adorned the flying jackets of 441st BS airmen.  The Latin expression “Finis Origine Pendet”, superimposed on a B-26 Marauder, means “The Beginning of the End”. 

______________________________

Here is the 320th Bomb Group’s Mission Report covering the mission of August 15, 1944.  Becky’s crew is listed at the bottom. 

______________________________

Most of the Mission Report is comprised of crew lists for the B-26s assigned to the mission, the page below covering six aircraft of the 441st Bomb Squadron.  Lieutenant Trunk’s plane and crew are listed second, with the notation “Crashed after T/O written alongside. 

______________________________

As stated in the concluding paragraph of the Missing Air Crew Report covering Becky (MACR 7300), “He [1 Lt. Paul E Trunk, the plane’s pilot] made no attempt to contact us by radio so further attempts to ascertain the exact cause would only be conjecture.  In our opinion the actual cause of the accident cannot be ascertained.” 

Here is the first page of the Missing Air Crew Report for the loss of Becky, with five of the plane’s crew listed at bottom… 

______________________________

…while this is the second page, listing Sergeants Bratton and Winters, with Captain Brouchard, as a passenger, at the end.

______________________________

This page lists the home addresses and next of kin of Becky’s crew.

______________________________

Lt. Trunk, from Shippenville, Pennsylvania, is buried in Arlington National Cemetery (Section 12, Grave 4836).  Lt. Rolland L. Mitchell, the plane’s co-pilot, from Thomson, Illinois, is buried at Lower York Cemetery, in that city.  T/Sgt. William C. Barron, the flight engineer, from Los Angeles, is buried at the Sicily-Rome American Cemetery and Memorial, at Nettuno, Italy.

The remaining five crewmen – Heinz (army serial number 31296512), S/Sgt. Harmon R. Summer (bombardier), S/Sgts. Charles T. Bratton (aerial gunner) and William M. Winters (photographer), with Capt. Wallace M. Brouchard (the Executive Officer of the 441st, who “went along for the ride”) – were buried on March 18, 1949 at the Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, in collective grave 90-92.

This picture, of the collective grave marker of the above-listed crewmen, is by Erik Kreft

______________________________

Exactly one month after Heinz was killed, a tribute to him appeared in Aufbau. 

Für die Freiheit gefallen

HEINZ THANNHAUSER

Aufbau
September 15, 1944

Ein wunderbar erfülltes junges Leben hat ein jähes Ende genommen. “Heinz Thannhauser, Staff Sgt. of the U. S. Army Air Force, killed in action over Sardinia, August 15, 1944.”

Fünfundzwanzig Jahre alt. Ein Liebling der Götter und der Menschen. Glücklichste Jugend im schönsten, wärmsten Elternhaus. Begeistert Amerika liebend und überall hier Gegenliebe findend. Ungewöhnlich begabt, ungewöhnlich reif. Mit sechzehn Jahren — statt der erforderten achtzehn — war er in Cambridge zum Studium zugelassen worden — eine beispiellose Ausnahme in der traditionsgebundenen englischen Universität. In Harvard macht er seinen Doctor of Art. Mit 22 Jahren wird er Instructing Professor an der Universität Tulane, New Orleans.

Lehren ist seine Leidenschaft. Er versteht es, wie wenig andere, die Begeisterung seiner Schuler zu wecken. Nicht nur für die Kunst, zu der er von Kindheit auf die Liebe im Elternhause eingesogen hatte. Er wirbt und wirkt für das, was nur als das Höchste ansicht: für das Ideal demokratischer Freiheit. Er gründet Jugendklubs, hält Reden, schreibt Aufsehen erregende Aufsatze — er reisst die anderen durch seine starke Empfindung mit. Und durch den wunderbaren Sense of humor, den er mit seiner scharfen Beobachtungsgabe verbindet.

Aber in diesem lebensschäumenden, von Schönheit und Frohsinn erfüllten Menschen steckt ein glühender Hass gegen die brutalen Gewalten, die den Untergang Europas herbeigeführt haben. Und eine ganze Welt schwer bedrohen.  Als der Krieg hier ausbricht, meldet er sich sofort freiwillig.

Im Februar 1943 verlässt Heinz Thannhauser Amerika auf seinem Bombenflugzeug. Von nun an kommen Briefe, Briefe, Briefe. Es sind nicht nur Schätze für seine Eltern. Es sind Dokumente der Zeit und Dokumente schönster Menschlichkeit. Er kennt keine Trägheit des Herzens. Er ist ein Kämpfer aus Leidenschaft — vom ersten bis zum letzten Tag. Heinz Thannhauser glaubt glühend an die gerechte Sache, die er vertritt. Wie eine Beschwörung kehrt der Satz wieder:

“Ihr musst alles tun, was in Eurer [not legible] steht um zu verhindern, dass es jemals wieder einen solchen Krieg gibt.. nicht mit Phrasen – – mit Taten…”

Er selbst leistet einen Schwur, sein Leben lang dafür zu kämpfen.

Ein Bericht aus Rom, wo er drei selige Urlaubstage verbringt, klingt wie eine Fanfare. Er ist in einem Glückstaumel. Seitenlang schildert er Details einiger Gestalten am Plafond der sixtinischen Kapelle — zum erstenmal sieht er im Original die Meisterwerke, über die er gelehrt und geschrieben hat. Er ist wie betrunken von so viel Schönheit. Aber gleich danach:

“Trotz allem, es ist wichtiger, das Leben eines einzigen unschuudigen Geisel zu retten, als das schonste alte Kunstwerk…”

In einem seiner letzten Briefe schildert er die Erregung, die mit jedem Flug verbunden ist. (Er hatte 37 Missions hinter sich…):

“…The sober anticipation before a mission. The terrible feeling of going time after time through heavy flak without being able to do anything except sit and hope for the best.  The real exultation of seeing your bombs hit the target – huge flames coming up and smoke as high as you are flying.  The relief and joy at seeing your field again, like home indeed!  Also – losing your friends – empty beds, guys who, the night before, were talking of what names to give their children and so on…  And I share his horror of war and determination that it must never happen again…”

Heinz Thannhauser hat ein Testament hinterlassen. Er vermacht alles, was er besitzt, dem “American Youth Movement for a Free World”.

– A. D.

______________________________

Fallen For Freedom

HEINZ THANNHAUSER

Aufbau
September 15, 1944

A wonderfully fulfilling young life took an abrupt end.  “Heinz Thannhauser, Staff Sgt. of the U.S. Army Air Force, killed in action over Sardinia, August 15, 1944.”

Twenty-five years old.  A favorite of God and mankind.  The happiest youth in the most beautiful, warmest home.  Enthusiastic, America loving and everywhere here finding requited love.  Unusually gifted; unusually mature.  At sixteen years – instead of the required eighteen – he had been admitted to Cambridge to study – an unprecedented exception to the tradition-bound English university.  At Harvard he makes his Doctor of Art.  At 22 he is an instructing professor at Tulane University, New Orleans.

Teaching is his passion.  He understands how little others awaken the passion of his students.  Not only for art, which from childhood he had imbibed to love in his parents’ home.  He promotes and acts only for what is the highest opinion: For the ideal of democratic freedom.  He founds youth clubs, gives speeches, writes sensational essays – he pulls others with his strong feelings.  And through a wonderful sense of humor, which he combines with his keen powers of observation.

But in this tumultuous beauty and joy, there is an ardent hatred against the brutal forces which have led to the downfall of Europe.  And heavily threaten the whole world.  When the war broke out, he immediately volunteered.

In February 1943, Heinz Thannhauser left America on his bomber aircraft.  From now on arrive letters, letters, letters.  They’re not just treasures for his parents.  They are documents of time and documents of the most beautiful humanity.  He knows no indolence of the heart.  He is a fighter of passion – from the first to the last day.  Heinz Thannhauser glowingly believes in the just cause he represents.  Like an incantation, the sentence repeats:

“You have to do everything that is in your [power] to prevent that there is ever such a war again … not with phrases – – with deeds …”

He himself makes an oath, to fight for this all his life.

A report from Rome, where he spends three blissful holidays, sounds like a fanfare.  He is in a stroke of luck.  For pages on end he describes details of some figures on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel – the first time he sees the original masterpieces, about which he has taught and written.  He is intoxicated with so much beauty.  But immediately afterwards:

“In spite of all this, it is more important to save the life of a single innocent hostage than the most beautiful old work of art …”

In one of his last letters, he described the excitement that is associated with each flight.  (He had 37 missions behind himself…):

“… The sober anticipation before a mission.  The terrible feeling of going through heavy flak time after time without being able to do anything except sit and hope for the best.  The real exultation of seeing your bombs hit the target – huge flames coming up and smoke as high as you are flying.  The relief and joy at seeing your field again, like home indeed!  So – losing your friends – empty beds, guys who, the night before, were talking of what names to give their children and so on…  And I share his horror of war and determination did it must never happen again… “

Heinz Thannhauser made a will.  He bequeathed everything he owned, to the “American Youth Movement for a Free World”.

– A.D.

While the Aufbau article touched upon the depth of Heinz’s education and ambitions, his life was chronicled in much greater detail in College Art Journal in 1945 (Volume 4, Issue 2) in the form of a biography by “H.R.H.”:

On August 15, 1944, Sgt. Heinz H. Thannhauser was killed in action while in service of his country as radio operator and gunner on a Marauder Bomber in the Mediterranean theatre.  His parents have recently been notified that Heinz was awarded posthumously the Purple Heart.

He was born in Bavaria on September 28, 1918.  The son of the well known Berlin and Paris art dealer, Justin K. Thannhauser, Heinz had a unique opportunity of becoming acquainted with the works of modern artists at an early age.  He received his primary and secondary education at the College Francais in Berlin and later in Paris at the Sorbonne.  He then attended Cambridge University. England, and took his B.A, degree in 1938.  In that year he came to this country at the age of twenty, and was holder of the Sachs fellowship at Harvard University.  During his two years at Harvard, he specialized in the history of modern art and obtained the A.M. degree in 1941.  At the Fogg his brilliant and active mind and his warm enthusiasms won Heinz the respect and the friendship of his fellow students and teachers.  In the fall of 1941, he accepted an instructorship under Professor Robin Feild at Newcomb College of Tulane University.  He was a collaborator of the ART JOURNAL where he published in March 1943 an article describing a project for collaboration between art and drama departments.  He had planned during the summer of 1943 to begin work on his doctoral dissertation, but in February he entered the Army.

Heinz had shown much promise as a young teacher and scholar in the field of art history and his loss will be keenly felt.

H.R.H.

In January 1945, the College Art Journal published another tribute to Heinz, in the form of a transcript of a letter sent to his parents in 1944.  Under the title “Furlough in Rome”, the article is an extraordinarily vivid, detailed, yet light-hearted account of a tour of artistic works among churches in that city, this letter having been alluded to in the above Aufbau article. 

FURLOUGH IN ROME
BY HEINZ H. THANNHAUSER

Excerpts from a letter written to his parents during the summer of 1944 after a visit to Rome

THAT morning we went to S. Luigi dei Francesi, to look at the Caravaggio pictures; but there was a big mass and celebration there by French troops of the 5th Army, so we didn’t see them.  The French came out later in a parade reminiscent of some I’ve seen in Paris, with turbaned troops and all (only their uniforms, except for headgear, are always American) – we took a picture or two of them.  Next, we went to the Sapienza and got into the courtyard and looked at St. Ivo; unfortunately, the inside was closed, you can see it only on days when mass is held for the laureates.  But we looked at the facade for quite a while, and after this visit to Rome I have even more respect for Borromini than I had by studying him formerly.  From there we went to S. Agnese in Piazza Navona, and had a good look at the Four Rivers Fountain too, which really is a pretty daring tour de force on old Bernini’s part.  The veil of the Nile is quite something.  All in all this visit to Rome has increased my respect for the technical courage and perfection of the Baroque masters if for nothing else in their work.  Next, S. Andrea della Valle, which quite apart from its design was amazing as being the first example of Baroque cupola and ceiling decoration I’d seen – the Lanfranco dome not being, perhaps, as terrific as some of them, but quite an introduction!  Then the Palazzo Farnese, which is now a French headquarters building.  After asking some Sudanese guards for directions, we groped our way up and finally a maid showed us into the Galleria, which was just being cleaned up – what a thrill!   A lot of super-moderns despise the Carracci as coldly academic and what-not, but when you see an ensemble like this, which so perfectly fulfills its purpose, your hat goes off to them.  The freshness of the color is amazing, and both the figures and the entire composition are pure delight.  Especially as a little breather after too many visits to the dark and serious churches – although I understand the fracas caused by cardinals having sexy things like that painted in their home!  The other rooms were astounding too, with the woodwork ceilings, etc.  I need hardly say how impressed I was with the facade in Rome, however, you get so, that the only thing you notice is a façade that is not perfect, the perfect ones being so common!  Next, S. Mariain Vallicella, with another terrific ceiling, and the Rubens altar piece with the angels holding up the picture of the Virgin that the gambler is said to have stoned when it was at S. Mariadella Pace, whereupon real blood came from it.

The next day we went to Santa Susanna and then to S. Maria della Vittoria, but unfortunately the Bernini Ecstacy of St. Theresa has been walled in for protection, like so many other things.  The figures of the onlooking Cornaro family in the two side boxes are still visible, though.  Then we went up to see S. Carloalle Quattro Fontane, which is just about the most amazing of Borromini’s tours de force.  We couldn’t get into the cloister but we looked for quite a long time at the amazing amount of movement and undulation he got into so small a facade at such a narrow corner.  We tried to take pictures of it but will have to splice two together, there wasn’t enough backing room. 

From there it was just a little way to Sta. Maria Maggiore, which I had especially wanted to see, after that unending paper I wrote for Koehler on the mosaics there.  I was afraid they’d probably have them walled up like most of the apsidial mosaics in Rome, but lo and behold, they were all there in their full freshness!  It was one of the most terrific artistic impressions I got on our stay in Rome.  I had not expected anything like the strength of color that remains just gleaming out at you, – especially so, of course, in the case of the Torriti work but amazingly bright too with the old mosaics.  We walked round the whole church looking at the mall: the walls of Jericho falling down, God’s hand throwing stones down on the enemy, Lot’s wife turning to salt, the passage over the Red Sea, etc.  I really was happy we had been able to get into Sta. Maria Maggiore. 

We had planned to go back via the Thermae of Trajan, but it got too late for that, and at S. Pietro in Vincoli, we heard that Michelangelo’s Moses was all covered up, so we didn’t bother.  Instead, we dropped into San Clemente, where so many great painters have worshipped in Masaccio’s chapel.  Father McSweeney (it’s a church given to the Irish in Rome), who took us around, remarked, “He was quite a big noise in those days, as you would say!”  First I asked him in Italian how to get to the subterranean church, and he answered in Italian and then said “Ye don’t speak much English, do ye?” which was very funny.  He proved to be an unusually interesting person, with the most intimate knowledge of art history and styles and so forth as well as all matters pertaining to his church and a lively interest in the war, discussing bombing formations and everything else.  He is completely in love with Rome and said there was no place like it to live in, and that he hoped after the war we would all three come to stay and live there!  The mosaics, as usual, were covered over, but we had plenty of time to study all the details of the Masaccio and Masolino works, and then went down to the old church below, with the Mithraic statue and the other amazing things.  He showed us where the house of Clemens was, and pointed out the usual anecdotic details of the Cicerone with an ever so slight but delightful note of amusement in his voice, placing them where they belong: for instance, with the Aqua Mysteriosa, “because nobody knows where it comes from” he said, as if he meant to say, “and why should anybody give a damn, either?”  All in all, on account of the Masolino chapel, the church itself, the subterranean part with its amazing fragments of early painting, and last but not least Father McSweeney’s delightful and enlightened manner, this was one of our most memorable visits in Rome. 

We hailed a horse carriage and went straight to St. Peter’s.  As Paul and I had already studied it pretty thoroughly the time before, we just glanced into give our friend a look at it, and then went straight to the Sistine Chapel.  Well, there just aren’t any words to tell how overwhelming it was.  Here I’d written a paper, God knows how long, about the Prophets and Sibyls and the interrelation of figures on the ceiling, but I hadn’t known a damned thing about the ceiling.  It is so unbelievably powerful that you can’t say anything.  I kept looking, irresistibly, at the Jonah, which epitomizes tome the whole of Michelangelo’s life and torture, and really is, in the last analysis, the culmination and cornerstone to the whole ceiling.  What a piece of painting – what a piece of poetry, or philosophy, or emotional outburst, a whole age expressed in one movement of a body!  The way in which everything including the Prophets and Sibyls and Atlantes builds up from the relatively quiet figures in the chronologically later pieces (Biblically speaking) to the storm that sweeps through the early Genesis scenes and the figures around them, is inexpressible in words, Romain Rolland’s or anyone’s.  As for sheer perfection of painting, the Creation of Adam just can’t be beat.  And say what you will, no photographs, detail enlargements of the most skillful kind, can ever do what the things themselves do to you, especially in the context from which you can’t separate them.  The Last Judgment is almost an anticlimax against it; and as for the Ghirlandaios, etc., you just can’t get yourself to look at them because something immediately pulls your eye up high again.  And when has there ever been a man to do so much to your sense of form with such modest and restrained use of color?  You begin to wonder why Rubens ever needed all that richness when a guy like this can sweep you off your feet with just a few tints of rose and light blue and yellow – but where the tints are put, oh boy!  Well, it’s all written up in all the books, but I just have to put down what it did to me.  – Mediterranean Theatre

Finally, an excellent representative image of B-26 Marauders of the 441st Bomb Squadron in formation, somewhere in the Meditarreanean Theater of War.  Notice that the aircraft in this photo comprise both camouflaged (olive drab / neutral gray) and “silver” (that is, uncamouflaged) aircraft.  The image is from the National Museum of the Air Force.     

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Stephen Ambrose’s 1998 book The Victors included recollections of the experiences of Cpl. James Pemberton, a squad leader in the United States Army’s 103rd Infantry Division, covering combat with German forces in late 1944.  Pemberton mentioned the death in battle of a German-speaking Jewish infantryman, who was killed while attempting – in his native language – to persuade a group of German soldiers to surrender. 

The fact that the soldier remained anonymous lent the story a haunting note, for that man’s name deserved to be remembered. 

Aufbau revealed his identity.  He was Private First Class George E. Rosing. 

Born in Krefeld, Germany, he arrived in the United States on a Kindertransport in 1937.  As revealed in the newspaper in September of 1945 (and verified through official documents) he received the Silver Star by audaciously using his fluency in German to enable the advance of his battalion in late November of 1944. 

The Victors – Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of World War II

Stephen E. Ambrose
1998

That same day Cpl. James Pemberton, a 1942 high school graduate who went into ASTP and then to the 103rd Division as a replacement, was also following a tank.  “My guys started wandering and drifting a bit, and I yelled at them to get in the tank tracks to avoid the mines.  They did and we followed.  The tank was rolling over Schu [anti-personnel] mines like crazy.  I could see them popping left and right like popcorn.”  Pemberton had an eighteen-year-old replacement in the squad; he told him to hop up and ride on the tank, thinking he would be out of the way up there.  An 88 fired.  The replacement fell off.  The tank went into reverse and backed over him, crushing him from the waist down.  “There was one scream, and some mortars hit the Kraut 88 and our tank went forward again.  To me, it was one of the worst things I went through.  This poor bastard had graduated from high school in June, was drafted, took basic training, shipped overseas, had thirty seconds of combat, and was killed.”

Pemberton’s unit kept advancing.  “The Krauts always shot up all their ammo and then surrendered,” he remembered.  Hoping to avoid such nonsense, in one village the CO sent a Jewish private who spoke German forward with a white flag, calling out to the German boys to surrender.  “They shot him up so bad that after it was over the medics had to slide a blanket under his body to take him away.”  Then the Germans started waving their own white flag.  Single file, eight of them emerged from a building, hands up.  “They were very cocky.  They were about 20 feet from me when I saw the leader suddenly realize he still had a pistol in his shoulder holster.  He reached into his jacket with two fingers to pull it out and throw it away.

“One of our guys yelled, ‘Watch it!  He’s got a gun!’ and came running up shooting and there were eight Krauts on the ground shot up but not dead.  They wanted water but no one gave them any.  I never felt bad about it although I’m sure civilians would be horrified.  But these guys asked for it.  If we had not been so tired and frustrated and keyed up and mad about our boys they shot up, it never would have happened.  But a lot of things happen in war and both sides know the penalties.”

Aufbau’s tribute to PFC Rosing appeared nineteen days after the end of the Second World War. 

Pfc. George E. Rosing

Aufbau
September 21, 1945

Der fruhere Gert Rozenzweig aus Krefeld, zuletzt Cincinnati, O., ist am 1. Dezember 1944 beim Vormarsch auf Schlettstadt im Elsaas im Alter von 21 Jahren gefallen.  Er wurde jetzt posthum mit dem Silver Star, der dritthöchsten Auszeichnung der amerikanishen Armee, geehrt.  – Es war am 24. November 1944, als die Spitze seines Bataillons in der Nähe von Lubine in Frankreich auf eine unerwartete feindliche Block-Stellung stiess, die die Strasse versperrte.  Unter Lebensgefahr trat Pfc. Rosing vor und begann, den feindlichen Wachposten auf deutch ins Gespräch zu ziehen.  Auf dessen Befehl legte er die Waffen nieder ung ging bis zu zehn Meter an den Wachposten heran.  Damit gab er seinen Kameraden Gelegenheit, Deckung zu suchen und den Angriff vorzubereiten.  Der Wachposten war uberrascht.  Bevor er sich aber der Situation bewusst wurde und Alarm geben konnte, gelang es der amerikanischen Truppe, durch die Stellung durchzustossen. – Pfc. Rosing kam 1937 mit einen Kindertransport nach Amerika; 1942 nachdem er gerade ein Jahr am College of Engineering an der Universität Cincinnati studiert hatte, trat er in die Armee ein.

The former Gert Rozenzweig from Krefeld, most recently of Cincinnati, Ohio, fell on 1 December 1944 on the way to Schlettstadt in Elsaas at the age of 21 years.  He has now been posthumously honored with the Silver Star, the third highest honor of the American Army.  It was on November 24, 1944, when the head of his battalion encountered an unexpected enemy position blocking the road near Lubine in France.  Under mortal danger, Pfc. Rosing began to draw the enemy sentinel into conversation.  At his [the German sentinel’s] orders he laid down his weapons and went up to ten meters to the sentry.  He gave his comrades the opportunity to seek cover and prepare for the attack.  The sentry was surprised.  But before he [the German sentinel] became aware of the situation and could give the alarm, the American force managed to break through the position. – Pfc. Rosing came to America in 1937 with a children’s transport; in 1942, after just one year studying at the College of Engineering at Cincinnati University, he joined the army.

Aufbau, September 21, 1945, page 7: The story of George Rosing.

The account of PFC Rosing’s award of the Silver Star appears to have been derived from his “original” Silver Star citation, which can be found at the website of the 103rd Infantry Division Association.  The full citation reads as follows:

HEADQUARTERS 103d INFANTRY DIVISION
Office of the Commanding General

APO 470, U.S. Army
19 December 1944

GENERAL ORDERS)
                                  :
NUMBER –   75)

AWARD, POSTHUMOUS, OF SILVER STAR

Private First Class George E. Rosing, 35801894, Infantry, Company “C”, 409th Infantry Regiment.  For gallantry in action.  During the night of 24 November 1944, in the vicinity of *** France, Private Rosing was with the battalion point, acting as interpreter, when an enemy road block was encountered.  The point was cutting the surrounding barb wire entanglement around the road block when suddenly challenged.  Private Rosing, a brilliant conversationalist in the enemies [sic] language, immediately stepped forward, with utter disregard for his life, to engage the sentry in conversation.  He was ordered to drop his arms and advance to within 15 feet of the sentry, which he did.  This gallant move gave the point an opportunity to seek cover in the immediate area.  The guard stupefied by Private Rosing’s boldness was unaware of the situation confronting him.  Before the guard could regain his composure, Private Rosing, assured that his group had reached safety, dived for the bushes as the sentry opened fire, and returned to his comrades unscathed.  As a result of his quick thinking and calmness during a tense situation the battalion was able to pass through the enemy road block successfully in the push towards its objective.  Throughout this entire activity his display of magnificent courage reflects the highest traditions of the military service.  Residence:  Cincinnati, Ohio.  Next of kin:  Eugene Rosenzweig, (Father), 564 Glenwood Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio.

By command of Major General HAFFNER:

G.S. MELOY, JR.
Colonel, G.S.C.
Chief of Staff

Born on December 3, 1923, PFC Rosing (serial number 35801894) was the son of Eugene and Herta (Herz) Rosing.  The brother of Pvt. John Rosing, his name appeared in Aufbau on January 12 and September 21, 1945.  He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, at Section 12, Grave 1574.  His matzeva appears below, in an image at BillionGraves.com taken by Liallee.

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Two men, among many.

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As part of my research about Jewish military service during the Second World War, I reviewed all issues of Aufbau published between 1939 and 1946 for articles relating to Jewish military service and identified pertinent news-items in the categories listed above.  (Whew.  It took a while…)  These will be presented in a future set of blog posts, with – where necessary – English-language translations accompanying the German-language article titles. 

I have not translated all, many, most, or even “a lot” of these articles; I leave that to the interested reader.  (!) 

Well, okay.

I’ve translated a certain select and compelling few, primarily concerning Jewish prisoners of war, and, the Jewish Brigade Group, which you may find of interest.

These will appear in the future.

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References

Maurice Derfler

B-24D 41-24269 (at Pacific Wrecks)

Aufbau

Aufbau (Digital), via Leo Baeck Institute (at Archive.org)

German Exile Journals, at German National Library (at Deutsche National Bibliothek)

German National Library Catalog Entry for “Aufbau”, at German National Library (at Deutsche National Bibliothek)

Aufbau (Wikipedia)

Aufbau (at Internet Archive)

German Exile Press (1933 – 1945) (Exilpresse digital – Deutschsprachige Exilzeitschriften 1933-1945) (Digital Exile Press – German Exile Magazines – 1933-1945)

Aufbau (at German Exile Press)

Aufbau (New York) at the Leo Baeck Institute

Leo Baeck Institute (at Wikipedia)

Leo Baeck Institute (New York)

Justin K. Thannhauser

Thannhauser Family (at Kitty Munson.com)

Thannhauser Family General Biography (at Wikipedia)

Justin K. Thannhauser and Guggenheim Museum (at Guggenheim Museum)

Thannhauser Collection (At Guggenheim Museum)

Thannhauser Collection (Book – At Guggenheim Museum)

Justin Thannhauser Obituary (The New York Times – 12/31/76) “Justin Thannhauser Dead at 84; Dealer in Art’s Modern Masters”

Uncle Heinrich and His Forgotten History (PDF Book) (by Sam Sherman)

Heinz H. Thannhauser

Für die Freiheit gefallen – Heinz Thannhauser (Article in Aufbau, at Archive.org)

Thannhauser, Heinz H – Biographical Profile at FindAGrave (at FindAGrave.com)

College Art Journal Volume 4, Issue 2, 1945 (Tribute to Heinz H. Thannhauser)

Furlough in Rome (Letter by Heinz H. Thannhauser in College Art Journal)

320th Bomb Group

320th Bomb Group Mission Reports (at 320th Bomb Group website (“When Gallantry was Commonplace”))

441st Bomb Squadron Insignia (at Vintage Leather Jackets)

Freeman, Roger A., Camouflage & Markings – United States Army Air Force 1937-1945, Ducimus Books Limited, London, England, 1974 (B-26 Marauder on pp. 25-48)

Tannehill, Victor C., Boomerang! – Story of the 320th Bombardment Group in World War II, Victor C. Tannehill, Racine, Wi., 1980. (Photo of “Becky” on page 115)

George E. Rosing

Ambrose, Stephen E., The Victors: Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of WW II, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y., 2004.

George E. Rosing Cemetery Record (at Billion Graves)

George E. Rosing Cemetery Record (at FindAGrave)

103rd Infantry Division (103rd Infantry Division WW II Association)

103rd Infantry Division Award List for December 19, 1944 (103rd Infantry Division WW II Association)

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Second Lieutenant Herbert Forman – May 23, 1944

A war ends. 

But, it may never really “end”, especially for the families of servicemen who remain missing: those who lost their lives under unknown circumstances, or those whose ultimate fates were known, but whose bodies were neither identified nor recovered, and who thus have no definite place of burial. 

The centrality of this aspect of military commemoration, and in turn, human memory – both collective and individual – is exemplified in the Funeral Oration of Pericles, which is dated to approximately 431-430 B.C.E.  Recited in accordance with the annual custom of the Athenians, his speech was presented in memory of Athenian military dead of first years of the Peloponnesian War.  Pericles particularly called attention to the Athenian practice whereby, “…an empty bier is decorated and carried in the procession: this is for the missing, whose bodies could not be recovered.”

Though the Second World War ended seventy-two years ago, there are still innumerable military dead from that conflict who have never been recovered and have no place of burial, or, whose final fate remains unknown.  Among the 407,300 Americans military deaths from that conflict there are some 73,000 who remain unaccounted for.   Through the efforts of the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency some will, in time, certainly be found.  Others, due to either the circumstances or locations in which they were lost, will probably remain missing.*

One missing serviceman was Second Lieutenant Herbert Forman (serial number 0-807304) of the Bronx.  Reported Missing in Action in a Casualty List published on June 30, 1944, his name appeared in a Casualty List of Killed in Action published on March 3, 1945. 

His obituary – below – appeared in the Times two days later: on March 5, 1945.

Eighth Air Force Pilot Lost in Action Over Europe

Second Lieut. Herbert Forman, a fighting pilot with the Eighth Air Force in England, was killed in action over western Europe on May 23, the War Department has informed his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. Forman of 3222 Cambridge Avenue, Riverdale, the Bronx.  Recently also his family heard officially that his brother, Sgt. Martin S. Forman of the Infantry, their only other child, had been seriously wounded in Luxembourg.

Twenty-two years old, Lieutenant Forman was born in New York.  He was graduated from De Witt Clinton High School in 1938.  He attended New York University, where he was active as a photographer, and then went to Georgia University, where he played the saxophone and clarinet in the university band.  Majoring in journalism and economics, Lieutenant Forman was a senior at Georgia when he joined the Army in 1942.

He was reported missing in a message received on D-day, June 6.  On Jan. 11 his parents heard that he was dead.

The son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. and Sadye L. Forman, Herbert served as a 9th Air Force P-38 Lightning fighter pilot in the 401st Fighter Squadron of the 370th Fighter Group.  Shot down while piloting P-38J 42-68179, his name is commemorated upon the Tablets of the Missing at the Cambridge American Cemetery, in Cambridge, England.  The recipient of the Purple Heart, he was also awarded the Air Medal and one Oak Leaf Cluster, suggesting that he’d completed approximately 10 to 15 combat missions by the time of his death.  His name appears on page 311 of American Jews in World War II. 

Herbert’s brother Martin, who was severely wounded in the Battle of the Bulge, passed away on April 6, 2011. 

This image is a June, 2014 Google Street view of the possible location o the Forman family’s wartime home: 3222 Cambridge Avenue, in the Bronx.  (Is this the “original” building where the family resided, or a newer residence constructed subsequent to the Second World War?  The right “wing” of the apartment – or condo? – appears to be of substantially newer architecture than the left …)

Unlike the other servicemen whose obituaries in The New York Times have been presented in this blog, several photographs and a published account exist concerning Lieutenant Forman.

The image below was taken at Craig Field, Alabama, while Herbert Forman was an Aviation Cadet.  He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant and received his “wings” as graduate of class 43-G on July 28, 1943. 

The portrait is from a collection of several thousand such images, in the United States National Archives collection of “Photographic Prints of Air Cadets and Officers, Air Crew, and Notables in the History of Aviation – NARA RG 18-PU”. (Specifically, within Box 30.)  You can find more about this collection in the post Five Pilots in December at my brother blog, The Past Presented.

The next two images can be found in Jay Jones’ 2003 book The 370th Fighter Group in World War II – In Action Over Europe with the P-38 and P-51.  The first photo is a simple portrait (an officer’s identification card photo?) of Herbert Forman as a Lieutenant, while the second shows him posing before a P-38J Lightning undergoing repairs, probably at the 370th Fighter Group’s base at Andover, England.  (The 370th Fighter Group credits both images to John and Ruth Fulton.)

This excellent photo, from the American Air Museum wesbite, is from the Roger Freeman collection (as image FRE 10071), and shows Lieutenant Forman (most definitely!) at Andover, England.  The camera is not surprising, as the Times’ obituary notes Lt. Forman’s interest in photography.  Note the “natural-metal” (sans camouflage paint) P-38J at the right. 

In The 370th Fighter Group in World War II, Jay Jones provides a very detailed account of the Group’s mission to Coblenz, Germany on May 23, 1944. 

The 370th lost three pilots that day:  Lt. Forman – covered in Missing Air Crew Report (MACR) 6505; 1 Lt. Herbert R. Schultz (also of the 401st Fighter Squadron) in P-38J 42-67278 – covered MACR 6506; 1 Lt. Maurice B. Thibert (of the 402nd Fighter Squadron) in P-38J 42-104066, covered in MACR 6497.  Of the three, only Lt. Schultz returned.  Captured, he spent the remainder of the war as a POW at Stalag Luft III, Sagan, Germany.  Jay Jones’ account concludes with Herbert Schultz’s “shoot-down”, in the latter’s own words.  

The account proceeds…  

From the Clouds to the Deck

The pilots flew a boring escort on the morning of May 23, and then a field order arrived the pilots had been waiting for.  The 370th would finally let loose all of its destructive tactical power against targets on enemy soil.  Forty-eight Lightnings were sent in to bomb the marshaling yard at Coblenz.  After the bombing, the pilots hit the deck and flew back toward the English Channel strafing whatever they could find.  Each plane carried one belly tank and one 1,000 pound bomb.

Capt. Charles D.  “Wick” Wickliffe of the 402nd Squadron recalled,

It was in the late afternoon, late enough that it was going to be a little iffy when we were getting back.  We had forty-eight P-38s up.  Before we got to Coblenz, we had gotten rid of our belly tank.  We dropped our bomb and we dropped down, and that was called a rhubarb.  We went on the deck.  It got scattered.  Everybody was scattered all over the landscape.  It was incredible.  I don’t think there were any two airplanes that were even close together.  I had my bearings and knew where I was going, and it was in the direction of Holland.  I was down on the deck and it was kind of pleasant, cruising at about 200 or a little better.  I’d see a flak tower coming up and I’d cruise over and give it a squirt.  There would be a lot of action and everybody that was there ducked and I would go over the top and put a little rudder on it and the gunner would shoot ahead of me.

He referred to a flak evasion trick of using the rudders to put the plane in a skid to the left or right, throwing off the gunner’s aim.

Wick continued,

I’d burned up a lot of fuel, but I still had an adequate amount.  I saw a troop train and it was down sort of in a hollow.  There were some trees that I could see that were protruding up.  I started to make a big swing to get up to start strafing it.  At the same time I had an eye on where I was going to start my strafing run.  I remembered to keep a lookout for the trees along there.  I started my strafing run and began to fire and quickly pulled up and started another run.  As I dropped down I flew right through a tree.  It wasn’t a bush-it was a tree.  That P-38 cut right through that tree.  The airplane staggered, and my thought was this was what you would call a fireball in an instant.  That airplane staggered up and I wondered what was keeping it up.  It was moving and pulling up, although it was pretty slow.  The windshield was totally green.  You couldn’t even see out of it.  I couldn’t believe that airplane was still flying.  When I went through the tree it took off all of my antennas.  There was no conversation with anybody, anyplace.

I got oriented and I knew I was going in the direction of England.  As I climbed up I could see out one side and the other to see what was going on.  I got up to about 10,000 and I realized that I flew right over a German airdrome.  They had the Focke-Wulfs lined up all over the place.  I was up at 10,000 feet looking down, and that’s not too far down.  They didn’t come up.

I got over the Channel and I was surprised, pleasantly so.  It was getting darker.  I began to lose my bearings.  I wasn’t quite sure where I was, except that my general heading was okay.  I had dropped down to about 2,000 feet in order to get myself out of the airplane if I could.  The bail-out techniques for getting out of the P-38 were wishy-washy.  Nobody had a good idea of what the best way to do it was.  I was getting low on fuel.  I had to make a decision of whether to bail out or go in.  At that time I could see ahead a fighter airdrome.  I slowed the airplane down to about 170, and the airplane started to fall out.  I realized that all of the lift inboard was all smashed out.  The only thing I was working on was the outboard wings.  The rest of it was just like it was hit by a hammer.  I was looking at landing at about 175 miles per hour.  I went in and made a good landing.  The fuel gauges were on zero and it was quite dark when I finished my roll out.  I didn’t have any brakes, either.  I hit the brakes, what they were, and it spun the airplane around.  They just took the P-38 and trashed it.  I got a new one.

It was very stressful when all these things were happening to me.  You can do everything when you have a real load of stress on you.  but when I got out of that airplane I put a cigarette in backasswards.  I had a couple of big drinks real quick.  It was an exciting trip.

The mission not only was iffy because of the late start, but also because of the weather.  There was a solid overcast from around two to four thousand feet up to ten thousand feet.  There was also problems with the aircraft icing up.  Seth McKee, leading the mission, recalled,

All of our missions were scheduled by the Ninth TAC, commanded by Pete Quesada.  He decided he wanted to see what we could with targets of opportunity strafing at low level.  The weather was pretty bad.  We hit the deck, forty-eight aircraft line abreast, about a hundred yards apart, and headed back toward England strafing targets of opportunity.  We hit all kinds of targets.

The thing I remember most about it was the weather started getting worse and worse as we were going further toward home.  Finally, I ended up over some city, I still don’t know which it was, probably Brussels, Belgium.  1 remember seeing church steeples going by me at higher altitudes that I was.  The weather was so bad I called the mission off.  I said, “Hey guys, we’ll break it off now.  We’ll climb out, join up and go home.” I climbed up, broke out.  I looked around and I had forty-eight aircraft with me, but I only saw two other aircraft in the sky.  I thought, “I’ve lost the whole damn group!”  One was a squadron commander and the other was the Group Operations Officer, Major Lee Hoddy.  They formed up on me and we went back.

The weather was horrible in England.  In those days we had no radar-controlled approaches and that sort of thing.  You had a beacon and you let down off of a heading.  With a proper rate of descent if you broke out at all you saw the airfield.  If you didn’t you would try it again.  Anyway, we recovered with no problem.  I was really, really worried about the group.  I found we lost three aircraft out of forty-eight.  They recovered all over England because the weather was so bad.  They just got in wherever they could.  But, I’ll never forget I thought, “My God, I’d lost the whole damn group.”

Lt. Bud Gewinner was almost a casualty on this mission.  He wrote in his diary,

I hit the deck at about 300 M.P.H. and started looking.  What I wanted to find was a train.  I found this one train steaming around a bend and came down on the engine, throwing all the lead I could.  Before I pulled up I saw the boiler explode.  As I pulled off the target I saw tracers going by me.  The next thing I found was a flak tower.  I came in level and really peppered it.  They threw so much back at me, I don’t know how they missed.

A short while later I felt an explosion on my ship and the cockpit got smoky.  Believe me, I started sweating.  I must have passed near some guns I hadn’t seen.  I twisted and turned all I could right down to the deck to get out of their fire.  I found another train after that and got its engine too.  I was getting low on ammo and gas so I headed home.  I had plenty of doubts while crossing the Channel because I didn’t know how badly old “Spooks” was damaged.  When I got back I found that a 20mm cannon shell had exploded in the nose section.  Those strafing jobs are mighty rough.  I have never spent such an excitement-packed half hour in my life.  It’s a weird feeling to see dozens of tracers whizzing by your ship.

Lt. Gene Baker of the 401st wrote in his diary that night,

We weren’t on the deck for more than 15 minutes when Watson picked up some tel. wires so I went back up through overcast with him.  He was on his right engine so no radio conversation.  As we got to the coast the flak guns got us pinpointed and gave us a burst.  Watson got some in dead engine.  I got some in tail, left wing tip tank, right wing main tank, right prop hub & glances off nacelle.  We landed at aux field & then I came on home.

The mission really wasn’t as successful as one might think.  A group of P-38s spread out on the deck tearing across the countryside sounds dangerous, but it was an ineffective use of men and firepower.  Al Bouffard recalled,

Lt. Thibert was the first one we lost on a mission.  He was my wingman on that mission.  They said hit the deck and whatever you see, shoot it up.  When I came down on the deck and we split apart – Thibert was over there somewhere – I was going along and the only thing I saw was farms and farmers.  I didn’t see a damn thing except farms and farmers out in the fields working.  I’d go by and waggle my wings and keep going.

I saw this tower.  They used to raise these towers and put flak guns up there.  I said, “Boy, there’s a flak tower.  I’ll get that son of a gun.”  I aimed for it and started shooting at it.  Nothing was coming at me.  When I got closer – it was a water tower.

Finally got back and Thibert never made it back.  I have no idea what happened to him.

Lt. Maurice B. Thibert of the 402nd, from Detroit, Michigan, was confirmed as killed in action.

Second Lt. Herbert Forman of the 401st also failed to return from the mission.  Lt. Joseph Ogrin was the last pilot to see Forman.  He noticed Forman on the left flank of the low-level attack heading roughly southwest.  Herb was listed as missing in action but was most likely killed.

First Lt. Herbert R. “Dutch” Schultz of the 401st was almost to the French coast when a flak battery opened up or him.  Schultz had joined up with Lt. Walter “Little Red’ Stephens of the 402nd to come out over the Channel.  Little Red reported,

I saw Lt. Schultz’s plane explode and felt the blast of the explosion.  I went into a climb pulling 65 to 70 inches in an attempt to dodge flak.  I looked back and saw a parachute quite a way below me, since I was climbing very rapidly.

Herbert Schultz recalled,

We had never had any training at skip or low level bombing so my bomb skipped completely over an inverted banked up “Y” in the rail junction I had planned to obliterate, and exploded harmlessly in a nearby stand of small pines.  But shortly thereafter I got lucky when a locomotive was traveling 90 degrees to my course and directly in front of me.  My first long burst disabled him spewing steam in all directions and as I went by I saw two 38s from our group had turned around and were going back to finish him off, so I continued on.

I also had an encounter with a flak tower before I hit the coast.  As soon as I spotted it I pulled the nose up to give my guns more range and opened fire hoping to encourage them to keep their heads down.  I could see people moving around on the top platform but I got no return fire.  As I went by I could see it was something like a silo only an open platform under the roof at the top.  Perhaps they had guns in it at one time but fortunately not when I went by.

By this time my fuel was getting low because we were traveling about 260 mph, normal for strafing.  So, I pulled up and picked up my safe course home not having the slightest idea where I was.

It turned out I was just out of Calais, France, and took a direct hit from one of the many 88s in the area.  When captured after parachuting the krauts explained it emphatically, “For you, the war is over.”

Lt. Schultz was sent to the Luftwaffe interrogation center at Oberursel, near Frankfurt, Germany.  There, downed fliers were questioned by crafty interrogators attempting to trick them into giving away information.  Throughout the remainder of the war many downed 370th pilots went through Oberursel for interrogation on their way to the infamous Stalags.

______________________________

While there was an eyewitness to Lt. Schultz’s loss (2 Lt. Walter C. Stephens, whose account in Missing Air Crew Report (MACR) 6506 is quoted above), there seem to have been no American witnesses to the loss of either Lt. Forman or Lt. Thibert.  Well…at least, the MACRs for both pilots contain no specific accounts describing their loss.  Instead, both MACRs simply include 1:4,000,000 scale maps of Continental Europe with the notation “MIA Return Trip Coblenz to Andover last seen slightly west of Cloblenz”.

The MACR for Lt. Forman is presented below:

This is the MACR for Lt. Schultz:

Though American documentation – in the form of MACRs – for the three pilots is scant to minimal, this was not so from the vantage point of German investigators.  The losses of Schultz and Thibert were covered in Luftgaukommando Reports J 1181 and J 1179, respectively.

(But, what are Luftgaukommando Reports?…  These are documents held within the United States National Archives “Collection of Foreign Records Seized” concerning Allied aircraft lost in the European and Mediterranean Theaters of War.  In a general sense, these documents include information about the nature and circumstances (flak or fighters) as to how an American aircraft was downed and recovered in German-occupied territory, the location and condition of its wreckage, technical aspects of the plane or its equipment particularly noted by German investigators, and, nominal biographical information about aircrew casualties.)

Here is the English-language translation of Luftgaukommando Report J 1181 (for Lt. Schultz), which is included within MACR 6506…  NARA’s master list of Luftgaukommando Reports correlates J 1181 to a point 2.5 kilometers southeast of Coulogne (a commune in Pas-de-Calais, immediately south of the city of Calais), France, at 18:45 hours.

…and, here is the English-language translation of Luftgaukommando Report J 1179 (for Lt. Thibert), which is included within MACR 6497.  NARA’s master list of Luftgaukommando Reports correlates J 1179 to “Steenocqerzeel” (Steenokkerzeel), Flemish Brabant, in central Belgium, at 18:15 hours. 

Notably, German investigators transcribed the next-of-kin information – the name and address of his mother – that had been embosed upon Lt. Thibert’s dog-tag…

What about Lt. Forman? 

No Luftgaukommando Report lists his name or is included within MACR 6505.  However, a review of Luftgaukommando Reports filed for May 23, 1944 reveals a Report that I believe can circumstantially be correlated to his loss.  This is Luftgaukommando Report J 1180. 

This document consists of a single sheet with typewritten notation “23.5.44 – 18.35 – Coxyde i. See – Lightning – Fl. Pl. Kdo. [FlugplatzKommando] Coxyde – 1 unbekannter Toter”. 

Translation?  “May 23, 1944, at 18:35 hours (6:35 P.M.) – Coxyde, in the sea – Lightning – Airfield Command Coxyde – 1 unknown dead.” 

Apparently, Herbert Forman was shot down – probably – by anti-aircraft fire (Jan Safarik’s compilation of Luftwaffe aerial victory credits against P-38s shows no Luftwaffe aerial victories over P-38s for May 23, 1944) on the return flight to Andover, and crashed into the English Channel just off shore from Coxyde (“Koksijde”), Belgium.  Maps of this area are presented below.

Northwest Europe, the English Channel, and southeastern England.  Google Maps’ emblematic red location pointer is superimposed on Coxyde, Belgium.

  The Strait of Dover (with Dunkirk) and the Belgian coast.  Coxyde (name not shown) is the area shaded in pink, just to the east of the Franco-Belgian border.

The coastal town of Coxyde, the name of which appears as “Koksijde”.

But, with all this, there remains an enigma.  Herbert Forman’s obituary mentions that his parents learned on January 11, 1945 – four months before the war’s end – that he had been killed in action.  Given that Luftgaukommando Reports were only accessed, investigated, and correlated to MACRs after the war’s end, what was the source of this information? 

Was Herbert Forman recovered, and interred as an “unknown”? 

That answer is unknown.

The image below – from Jay Jones’ The 370th Fighter Group in World War II – is an excellent representative view of a 401st Fighter Squadron P-38 Lightning, though almost certainly not the specific aircraft flown by Herbert Forman or Herbert Schultz on the mission of May 23. 

The photograph clearly illustrates the 401st’s “9D” squadron identification letters painted on the aircraft’s tail booms, and, the individual aircraft-within-squadron identification letter (in this case, “E”) painted on both the “exterior” glycol radiator housing, and, interior surface of the plane’s twin fins and rudders.  The black square on the exterior of the fin and rudder also designated the 401st Fighter Squadron.

Given that manufacture of “natural metal” (that is, un-camouflage-painted) P-38s probably commenced with aircraft 42-68008, Herbert Forman’s P-38J – 42-68179 – presumably had the same general appearance as the “silver” Lightning in this photograph.  

______________________________

Some other Jewish military casualties on Tuesday, May 23, 1944, included…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Glanzrock, Murray G., S/Sgt., 14083453, Aerial Gunner (Left Waist), Air Medal, 2 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart
Mrs. Bea Glanzrock (wife), 1237 54th St. / 5001 10th Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1922
Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France – Plot A, Row 35, Grave 55
Casualty Lists 6/30/44, 3/1/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed
(National Jewish Welfare Board index cards are stamped “No Publicity”)

Markus, Joseph R., Sgt., 36636142, Aerial Gunner (Nose Turret), Purple Heart
Mrs. Dorothy S. Markus (mother), 10512 Edbrooke Ave., Chicago, Il.
Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France – Plot A, Row 25, Grave 62
American Jews in World War II – 109

S/Sgt. Murray Glanzrock and Sgt. Joseph Markus were crewmen in B-24H Liberator 42-7583 “Wee Willie”; “FL * L”, of the 704th Bomb Squadron, 446th Bomb Group, 8th Air Force.  Piloted by 1 Lt. James C. Blackwood, none of the plane’s crew of 10 survived.  The aircraft’s loss is covered in MACR 5251 and Luftgaukommando Report KU 1930.

______________________________

Ruslander, Harold, S/Sgt., 20236617, Flight Engineer
Mr. and Mrs. Fred E. and Thressa F. Ruslander (parents), 5301 Fair Oaks St., Pittsburgh, Pa.
1 Lt. Solomon L. Ruslander (cousin?), Leesville, La.
Born Brooklyn, N.Y., 12/16/16
Entered active service in September, 1940, at Fort Dix, New Jersey
Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii – Plot Q-48; Buried 6/15/49
The Aluminum Trail – 142
The Jewish Criterion
(Pittsburgh) 2/1943

American Jews in World War II – not listed

Sternbaum, Jacob Aaron, 1 Lt., 0-672704, Co-Pilot
Mr. and Mrs. Carl [11/17/88 – 3/3/54] and Mary E. (Yuwiler) [2/14/88 – 5/15/70] Sternbaum (parents), David, Max, and Minnie (brothers and sister), 169 Vale Ave., Mansfield, Oh.
Born 1923
New Albany National Cemetery, New Albany, In. – Section B, Grave 409A; Buried 10/27/49
The Aluminum Trail – 142
American Jews in World War II
– not listed

1 Lt. Jacob A. Sternbaum and S/Sgt. Harold Ruslander were crewmen in a C-46 aircraft (41-107282) operated by Station 11 of the India-China Wing of the Army Air Force’s Air Transport Command.  The aircraft’s loss is covered in MACR 5198.  The plane crashed on a flight between Chabua and Misamari (both in India), the wreckage eventually being located in India’s Dafflaghur Hills (27 – 06 N, 93-24 E).  Piloted by Captain Terry V. Prosper, none of the transport’s 4 crewmen survived. 

______________________________

Bauman, Hans, Pvt., M/107479
Royal Canadian Infantry Corps, Loyal Edmonton Regiment
Cassino War Cemetery, Cassino, Frosinone, Italy – IX,F,10

Ben Avraham
, Avraham Pall, Pioneer, 12648

Pioneer Corps
Dely Ibrahim War Cemetery, Algeria – 4,B,19
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 238
(We Will Remember Them gives name as “Ben-Avraham, Avraham”; Commonwealth War Graves Commission gives name as “Ben Abraham, Abraham Pall”)

Black
, Bernard, Gunner, 558769V

South African Artillery, 6th Field Reserve Company
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel and Bella Black (parents), Johannesburg, South Africa
Born 1921
Bari War Cemetery, Bari, Italy – XIV,A,35
South African Jews in World War Two – page “x”

Einhorn
, Philip, T/Sgt., 35008563, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart

United States Army, 37th Infantry Division, 148th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Joseph Einhorn (brother), Isadore and Eugene (brothers), 3436 Superior Park Drive, Cleveland Heights, Oh.
Born 1912
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot D, Row 6, Grave 93
Greater Cleveland Veterans Memorial – Record for Philip Einhorn Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, June 6 and 9, 1944
American Jews in World War II – 485


Fisch, Arthur E., T/5, 39550181, Field Artillery, Purple Heart (Died of Wounds)
United States Army, 1st Armored Division, 91st Armored Field Artillery Battalion
Mrs. Goldie P. Fisch (mother), 2148 ½ City View, Los Angeles, Ca.
Born 1922
Place of burial unknown
War Department Release 8/24/44
American Jews in World War II – 42


Fried
, Carl Melvin, Pvt., D/82925

Royal Canadian Infantry Corps, Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
Mr. and Mrs. Max and Rose Fried (parents), 7 Park St., Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada
(also) 15 Yates Ave., Newark, New Jersey, United States
Born Glace Bay Nova Scotia, Canada; 4/23/13
Cassino War Cemetery, Cassino, Frosinone, Italy – IX,D,23
The Jewish Chronicle – 6/23/44
Canadian Jews in World War II (Volume II) – 23

Friedman
, Martin (Mordechai Bar Khaim), Sgt., 33062674

United States Army, 3rd Infantry Division, 30th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Hyman and Elsie Friedman (parents), 3800 Cottage Ave., Baltimore, Md.
Born 1914
Herring Run Hebrew Cemetery, Baltimore, Md. – Mikro Kodesh Beth Israel Section
War Department Release 10/6/44
American Jews in World War II – Not listed (NJWB Card states “No Publicity”)

Goldberg, Norman Myer, Sgt., 1086976, Air Bomber, Mission of 5/22-23/44 to Braunschweig, Germany
Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 49 Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Philip and Rachel Goldberg (parents), Liverpool, England        
Born 1922
Aircraft: Lancaster III, NE125; “EA * K”; Pilot: P/O Philip R. Graves-Hook; 7 crewmen – no survivors
Becklingen War Cemetery, Borkel, Kreis Becklingen, Germany – Collective Grave 24,B,5-7
RAF Bomber Command Losses (Volume V) – 234
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 198

Greystoke
, Peter, F/O, 143106

Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve
Mrs. Doris Greystoke (wife), Wanstead, Essex, England
(also) 24 Du Cane Court, Balham, London, SW17, England
Born 1910
Streatham Park Jewish Cemetery, Surrey, England – Section F, Row 12, Grave 10
The Jewish Chronicle 6/2/44
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 202

Kaufman
, Louis Nathan, Trooper, 6850444

Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Tank Regiment, 51st (The Leeds Rifles)
Mrs. Deborah (Davidson) Kaufman (mother), 175 Green Lanes, Palmers Green, Middlesex, London, N13, England
Born 1922
Cassino War Cemetery, Cassino, Frosinone, Italy – II,K,14
The Jewish Chronicle – 8/25/44
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 112

Krolman
, Norman Martin, Lt.

Royal Canadian Armoured Corps, 12th (The Three Rivers) Armored Regiment
507 Rosevale Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Cassino War Cemetery, Cassino, Frosinone, Italy – XIII,G,10
The Jewish Chronicle – 6/23/44

Schiff
, Daniel J., 2 Lt., 0-694958, Bombardier, Purple Heart

United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 456th Bomb Group, 744th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Tillie S. Schiff (mother), 407 Quentin Road, Brooklyn, N.Y.
MACR 15117, B-24H 42-94872; Pilot: 2 Lt. John W. Van Dyke; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Place of burial unknown
Casualty List 7/2/44
American Jews in World War II – 430

Szkolnik
, Jean Antoine, at Monte Schierani, Italy

Armée de Terre, 4eme G.T.M.
Vauchowilliers, Aube, France
Born 8/10/18
Place of burial unknown

Waldman
, Tobias, Trooper, 7911691

Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Tank Regiment, 51st (The Leeds Rifles)
Mr. and Mrs. Solomon and Hettie Waldman (parents), 6 Stobart Ave., Prestwich, Manchester, Lancashire, England
Cassino War Cemetery, Cassino, Frosinone, Italy – II,K,2
The Jewish Chronicle – 6/16/44
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 172
(We Will Remember Them gives name as “Walderman, Tobias”; Commonwealth War Graves Commission gives name as “Waldman, Tobias”)

Wiener
, Derek Abraham, F/O, 157874, Wireless Operator, Mission of 5/22-23/44 to Dortmund, Germany

Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 103 Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Solomon David and Bernice Wiener (parents), Cleveleys, Essex, England
Born 1923
Aircraft: Lancaster III, ND629; “PM * G”; Pilot: P/O William J.D. Charles; 7 crewmen – no survivors
Reichswald Forest War Cemetery, Kleve, Germany – Collective Grave 23,C,12-14
RAF Bomber Command Losses (Volume V) – 237
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 31

Winkiel
, Leon Jan, Sgt., P/792294, Air Gunner, Mission of 5/22-23/44 to Dortmund, Germany

Royal Air Force, No. 300 Squadron
Born Gniew, Poland, 11/17/21
Aircraft: Lancaster III, LM487; “BH * J”; Pilot” F/O Wilhelm Adler; 7 crewmen – 1 survivor (F/O Adler)
Reichswald Forest War Cemetery, Kleve, Germany – Plot II, Row E, Grave 4
Leon Jan Winkiel (at Polish War Graves)
Loss of Lancaster LM487 (at Air Crew Remembered)
Polish Air Force in World War Two – No. 300 Squadron Losses (at PolishAirForce.pl)
Polish Air Force at War (Volume 2) – 383
RAF Bomber Command Losses (Volume V) – 237
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II (Volume II) – 121

Zerbib, Benjamin, at Tomba di Rose, Italy
Armée de Terre, 1ere R.A.C.
Elba Ksour, Tunisia
Born 1/13/22
Place of burial unknown

Other Incident…

Sloan, Leon H., F/O, T-123451, Glider Pilot, Soldier’s Medal
United States Army Air Force, 1st Provisional Troop Carrier Group, 309th Troop Carrier Squadron
Aircraft crashed 3 miles north of Wagram, North Carolina
Mr. and Mrs. Henry and Lena Slobod (parents), 5501 Chancellor St., Philadelphia, Pa.
(wife), Des Moines, Ia.
Born March 8, 1920
“No MACR”; Aircraft L-3C 43-1551; Passenger was F/O Willard T. Ray (seriously injured)
Roosevelt Memorial Park, Trevose, Philadelphia, Pa. – Lot Z, Plot 186, Grave 2; Buried 5/26/44
http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/
Philadelphia Inquirer 5/25/44, 5/27/44
Philadelphia Record 5/25/44
Wilkes-Barre Record 5/25/44
American Jews in World War II
– 533

Wounded in Action

Ayoun, Maurice, Lieutenant, at Pastena, Italy
Armée de Terre

“On 23 May 1944, in the vicinity of Pastena (Italy), where, supporting a tank attack, under a violent artillery fire and anti-tank weapons, he succeeded in destroying on foot an advancing enemy “Panther” tank.  Two nights later, during a reconnaissance patrol, forward of the lines, subjected to a violent fire and close to infantry, he participated himself in the evacuation under fire of one of his seriously wounded men, giving a fine example of camaraderie and contempt of danger.”

(“Le 23 Mai 1944 aux environs de Pastena (Italie), oû, appuyant une attaque de chars, sous un violent tir d’artillerie et d’armes antichars, a reussi, à pied, à détruire un char “Panther” ennemi qui gênait la progression.  Deux nuits après, au cours d’une patrouille de reconnaissance, en avant les lignes, et pris à partie sous un tir violent et rapproché d’infanterie, a participé lui-même à l’évacuation sous le feu d’un de ses hommes grièvement blessé, donnant ainsi le bel exemple de camaraderie et de mépris du danger.”)

Wounded subsequently, on 11/21/44
Livre d’Or et de Sang – Les Juifs au Combat: Citations 1939-1945 de Bir-Hakeim au Rhin et Danube – 119, 134

Garland, Ralph, Cpl., H/19488
Royal Canadian Infantry Corps
98 Inkster Blvd., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada The Jewish Chronicle – 9/15/44
Canadian Jews in World War II (Volume II) – 95

Goldstein
, Joseph, Pvt., Purple Heart, Anzio, Italy

United States Army
Mrs. Evelyn Goldstein (wife); Phyllis (daughter), 80-10 192nd St., Jamaica, N.Y.
Born 1917
War Department Release 7/2/44;
Long Island Daily Press 7/1/44
American Jews in World War II – 328

Schwartz
, Edward, PFC, Purple Heart, Traceno, Italy (wounded by 88mm shell)

United States Army
Mrs. Lillian Schwartz (mother), 1398 Grand Concourse, Bronx, N.Y.
Born Hungary, 1920
Casualty List 7/11/44
The American Hebrew 10/6/44;
American Jews in World War II – 435

Rankin
, Harry, Cpl., K/52258

Royal Canadian Infantry Corps
3570 Hull St., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
437 E. 7th Ave., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
The Jewish Chronicle – 7/7/44
Canadian Jews in World War II (Volume I) – 78
Canadian Jews in World War II (Volume II) – 112

Prisoner of War (Europe)

Lesser, Stanley, Sgt., 31126915
United States Army, 88th Infantry Division, 350th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 7A, Moosburg
Mrs. Etta Lesser (mother), 319 Park St., Holyoke, Ma.
Born 1916
Casualty Lists 6/11/45, 6/19/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Another Incident…crashed (or crash-landed?) in Burma…

Morris, Melvin, 1 Lt., Pilot (Cargo), Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster
United States Army Air Force
Aircraft Crashed at Myitkyina, Burma
Mrs. Helene Morris (wife), 60 Plaza St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1915
No Missing Air Crew Report; Aircraft C-47 41-7866
http://www.aviationarchaeology.com
War Department Release 10/12/44
American Jews in World War II – 396

References

Books

Chiche, F., Livre d’Or et de Sang – Les Juifs au Combat: Citations 1939-1945 de Bir-Hakeim au Rhin et Danube, Edition Brith Israel, Tunis, Tunisie, 1946

Chorley, W.R., Royal Air Force Bomber Command Losses of the Second World War – 1944 (Volume 5), Midland Publishing, Hinckley, England, 1997.

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Freeman, Roger, Camouflage and Markings – United States Army Air Force 1937-1945, Ducimus Books Limited, London, England, 1974

Jones, Jay, The 370th Fighter Group in World War II – In Action Over Europe with the P-38 and P-51, Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Atglen, PA, 2003

Meirtchak, Benjamin, Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armies in World War II: II – Jewish Military Casualties in September 1939 Campaign – Jewish Military Casualties in The Polish Armed Forces in Exile, World Federation of Jewish Fighters Partisans and Camp Inmates: Association of Jewish War Veterans of the Polish Armies in Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1995

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

Morris, Henry, Edited by Hilary Halter, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945 – An Addendum, AJEX, United Kingdom, London, 1994

Thucydides, History of The Peloponnesian War (Translated by Rex Warner; with an Introduction and Notes by M.I. Finley), Penguin Books, New York, N.Y., 1972 (Pericles Funeral Oration pp. 143-151)

Canadian Jews in World War II – Part I: Decorations, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948.

Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948.

Websites

Hoffman, Roy, Missing in Action – On Memorial Day, keeping alive the memory of my uncle, lost at sea in WWII  – .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. – (at Tablet Magazine – Commemorating Major Roy Robinton, USMC)

Discussion of 370th Fighter Group Losses on May 23, 1944 (at 12 O’Clock High .net – Luftwaffe and Allied Air Forces Discussion Forum)

Forman, Martin S. – Obituary (at Legacy.com)

World War II Accounting – Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (at dpaa.mil)

World War II Casualties (at Wikipedia)

Luftwaffe Wartime Aerial Victory Credits – by Jan Safarik (at AcesSafarikOvi.org)

J (Jäger) Reports J 1179, J 1180, and J 1181: United States National Archives – Collection of Foreign Record Seized – Record Group 242: “Records of Luftgaukommandos: German Reports of Downed Allied Fighters and Other Aircraft – J (Jäger) Reports”, at Entry 1013, Shelf Location 190 / 14 / 9-8 / 2-1

A note…

* I do not know the total number of missing for the countries of the British Commonwealth or former Soviet Union, but those numbers are likely staggeringly high, and especially in the case of the latter, indeterminate, because of lack of records, and especially political factors.