Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Pvt. Edward A. Gilpin – December 20, 1944

Like many of the war casualties whose obituaries appeared in The New York Times, information about Private Edward A. Gilpin of Manhattan appeared well after the end of the war in Europe: In November of 1945.

Notably, the Times erred in reporting that Pvt. Gilpin was killed in action of the 16th of December, 1944, during the opening day of Germany’s Ardennes Offensive, more popularly known as the “Battle of the Bulge”.  In reality, he lost his life on the 20th of December, as can be seen in this image below (contributed by FindAGrave member Glenn), of his matzeva at the the Long Island National Cemetery (Section J, Grave 14546) in Farmingdale, N.Y.

Though Pvt. Gilpin’s obituary appeared in the Times on November 8, 1945, his name appeared in an actual Casualty List that was published two weeks later, on November 21.

Private Gilpin’s name can be found on page 320 of American Jews in World War II.The image below is a Google street view of the Gilpin family’s wartime residence, at 125 West 16th Street. 

Pvt. Edward A. Gilpin, 30-year-old former organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, was killed in action in Germany on Dec. 16, 1944 [error], in the Battle of the Bulge, the War Department has informed his widow, Mrs. Reba Gilpin of 125 West Sixteenth Street.  He was attached to a machine gun company of the 112th Regiment, Twenty-Eighth Division.

Private Gilpin was long active in theatrical affairs.  He was graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts here.  He had acted on the stage and in radio shows and had produced and directed various plays in a stock company theatre in Saugerties, N.Y., and at the Roerich Museum here.

Besides his widow, he leaves two children, the Misses Tovia and Margaret Gilpin; his mother, Mrs. Mary Gilpin of Philadelphia; a sister, Mrs. Carl Freedman of Miami, Fla., and a brother, PFC Leonard Gilpin of the Army, now in France.

The image below is a 2016 Google street view of the Gilpin family’s wartime residence, at 125 West 16th Street in New York.

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Some other Jewish military casualties on Wednesday, December 20, 1944, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Bass, Robert M., T/5, 33601453, Purple Heart (Lae, New Guinea)
United States Army
Mr. Joseph H. Bass (father), 4613 Conshohocken Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1924
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot A, Row 5, Grave 58
The Jewish Exponent 8/24/45
American Jews in World War II – 510

Bernstein, Mike, Pvt., A/487
Canada, Royal Canadian Infantry Corps, Irish Regiment of Canada
Mr. and Mrs. Max and Sarah Bernstein (parents), Sgt. Leonard Bernstein (brother), 61 Markham St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Born Toronto, Ontario, 2/16/23
Villanova Canadian War Cemetery, Bagnacavallo, Italy – III,A,5
The Jewish Chronicle 8/10/44
Canadian Jews in World War Two – Volume II, 10

Blank, Sara Rachela Shoshana, Sgt., W/PAL/203880
England, Auxiliary Territorial Service
Ramleh War Cemetery, Ramleh, Israel – W,32
The Jewish Chronicle 1/12/45
We Will Remember Them, Volume 1 – 64, 239

Cohen, Gerald I., Pvt., 36649720, Purple Heart
United States Army, 106th Infantry Division, 423rd Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Mark and Helen Cohen (parents), Lawrence (brother), 6622 North Ashland Ave., Chicago, Il.
Born 9/7/24
Westlawn Cemetery, Norridge, Chicago, Il. – Buried 6/13/49
Chicago Tribune 6/12/49
American Jews in World War II – 96

Devor, David, Pvt., B/103198
Canada, Royal Canadian Infantry Corps, Irish Regiment of Canada
Mr. and Mrs. Harry and Kate Devor (parents), John, Sidney, and Berko (brothers), 59 Havelock Ave., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Born 1924
Villanova Canadian War Cemetery, Bagnacavallo, Italy – II,A,4
Canadian Jews in World War Two – Volume II, 10

Ehrenkranz, William, 2 Lt., 0-925973, Co-Pilot, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 455th Bomb Group, 740th Bomb Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph and Dora Ehrenkranz (parents), 16 Edwin Place, Newark, N.J.

Possibly from Toms River, N.J.
MACR 14245; B-24J (serial number not listed); Pilot: Capt. William J. Stewart, Jr.; 10 crewmen – no survivors
Zachary Taylor National Cemetery, Louisville, Ky. – Section E 229
Casualty List 3/8/45
American Jews in World War II – 231

Lt. Ehrenkranz was the co-pilot of a B-24 Liberator which crashed – due to very poor visibility – eight miles north of San Marco, Italy, while returning from a mission to the Pilsen Skoda Works in Czechoslovakia.  The collective grave includes the following crewmen:

T/Sgt. Robert L. Rausch – Radio Operator (Aurora, Il.)
S/Sgt. Joseph P. Schulte – Flight Engineer (Okmulgee, Ok.)
Capt. William J. Stewart, Jr. – Pilot (Pittsburgh, Pa.)
F/O Harold A. Thompson – Navigator (Detroit, Mi.)

Fortgang, Leo, PFC, 32295977, Purple Heart
United States Army, 77th Infantry Division, 306th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Sarah Fortgang (mother); Murray Fortgang (brother), 100 Columbia St., New York, N.Y.; Mrs. Carol Sommers (daughter)
Born 1/29/15
Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y. – Section J, Grave 15584
Casualty List 3/20/45
American Jews in World War II – 312

Glick
, Philip Paul, Pvt., 32944161, Purple Heart

United States Army, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, K Company
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob and Margaret Glick (parents), Hudson, N.Y.
Born N.Y., 6/29/25
Cedar Park Cemetery, Hudson, N.Y.
Times Union (Albany) – 6/4/46
American Jews in World War II – 322

Goldberger
, Stanley R., PFC, 36633963, Purple Heart

United States Army, 28th Infantry Division, 112th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Alexander Goldberger (father), 3319 West Cullon Ave., Chicago, Il.
Born 1923
Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – Plot H, Row 12, Grave 65
American Jews in World War II – 100

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Gross, Samuel (Samuel Yehuda bar Mordechai ha Kohane), Sgt., 33470424, Gunner (completed 6 missions)
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 484th Bomb Group, 825th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Edith Gross (wife); Samuel A. Gross, Jr. (son), 5440 Tabor Road, Philadelphia, Pa.
Mr. and Mrs. Max (4/1/53-74) and Pauline (2/5/79-83) Gross (parents), 2655 S. Fairhill St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 7/29/22

No Missing Air Crew Report; Aircraft: B-24 Liberator
Mount Sharon Cemetery, Springfield, Pa. – Section K; Buried 11/28/48
The Jewish Exponent 1/26/45
Philadelphia Record 1/19/45
Philadelphia Inquirer 12/26/48
American Jews in World War II – 527

The photos show the matzeva and military grave marker of Army Air Force Sergeant Samuel Gross (Samuel Yehuda bar Mordechai ha Kohane). 

Comparing the information on the grave marker – denoting that Samuel served in the 825th Bomb Squadron of the 484th Bomb Group – with the photographic portrait (in remarkably good condition after seven decades) mounted in Sgt. Gross’ matzeva presents a quandary: 

Samuel’s uniform carries the emblem of the Army’s 13th Armored Division (the Black Cats), rather than the winged “15” of the 15th Air Force. 

Perhaps he was initially attached to the 13th Armored, and then transferred to the Army Air Force?

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Grossman, Mordecai M., Pvt., 36598374, Purple Heart (Wounded 12/20/44; Died of Wounds 12/23/44)
United States Army, 5th Infantry Division, 11th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Leo Grossman (father), 2688 Glynn Court, Detroit, Mi.
Born 1/3/25
Wayne State University student
Machpelah Cemetery, Ferndale, Mi. – Section L, Lot 16, Grave 503D; Buried 4/26/49
The Jewish News (Detroit) 1/26/45, 2/9/45
American Jews in World War II – 191

The articles below are from the above mentioned issues of The Jewish News, of Detroit.  A transcribed version of Abraham Caplan’s tribute to Mordecai – the ethos of whose life seems strikingly reminiscent of that of Jochanan Tartakower (“The Brief War of An Only Son”) – is presented below.

To Mordecai Grossman

Killed in Action in France
December 23, 1944

BY ABRAHAM CAPLAN

Slacken not the tempo of the Hora,
Though he no longer sets the pace of the dancing.

It was not the dance which so enthralled him;

This whirling of young people was but the token
Of a nation, old so long, coming again into flower.

Tall, broad-shouldered, kerchief around his neck.
His untutored voice singing his beloved Hebrew.

He looked beyond the driving preparatory tasks
Assigned to him by other fervent youths
To fruitful exertions as workman and Halutz
In the land which was sweeter to him than very life.

This restless child of freedom who divined his mission
Hurled himself into the battle at the enemy’s gates
And challengingly fought his war and died
For majestic liberation – Israel’s and the worlds.
_____

Slacken not the tempo of the Hora.
You who knew and greatly loved him.

Remember the sacrifice which daringly he brought
And keep the name of your fallen comrade glowing
With the unabating flame of pure, adoring hearts.

_____________________________

This picture, by KChaffeeB, shows Mordecai’s matezva at Machpelah Cemetery, in Ferndale, Michigan.

GE DIGITAL CAMERA

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Halperin, Abraham, Pvt., 32905614, Purple Heart
United States Army, 106th Infantry Division, 423rd Infantry Regiment
Mr. Barnett Halperin (father), 1401 Bryant Ave., Bronx, N.Y.
Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – Plot I, Row 6, Grave 25
American Jews in World War II – 340

Hanzel, Abraham, PFC, R-1764 (Dunkirk, France)
1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, 1st Armored Brigade
Czechoslovakia, Sokolovce, okres Piesany; 10/29/16
Adinkerke Military Cemetery, West Vlaanderen, Belgium – H,10
http://www.army.cz/acr/vuapraha/db/index.php
Zide Československém Vojsku na Západé – 246

Lackovic, Ladislav, Pvt., J-935 (Dunkirk, France)
1st Czechoslovak Army Corps, 1st Armored Brigade
Czechoslovakia, Šarfia, okres Modra; 3/27/18
Adinkerke Military Cemetery, West Vlaanderen, Belgium – H,11
http://www.army.cz/acr/vuapraha/db/index.php
Zide Československém Vojsku na Západé – 246

Laderman, Matthew A., Cpl., 32882335, Gunner (Waist), Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 459th Bomb Group, 757th Bomb Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph and Celia Laderman (parents), 25-12 Steinway St., Long Island City, N.Y.
Born 1/12/25
MACR 10691; Aircraft: B-24J 42-51837; Pilot: 2 Lt. Joseph A. Doyle, Jr.; 10 crewmen – 2 survivors
Wellwood Cemetery. Farmingdale, N.Y.
Casualty List 3/29/45
American Jews in World War II – 370

Levy
, Raymond D., PFC, 11048119, Purple Heart

United States Army, 82nd Airborne Division, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, C Company
Winthrop, Ma.
Cemetery Location Unknown
http://www.ww2-airborne.us/units/504/504_honor_kl.html
American Jews in World War II – 170

Mand
, Ben, T/Sgt., 32971808, Purple Heart, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster

United States Army, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Previously wounded ~ 10/20/44
Mrs. Sonia Mand (wife), 1450 Parkchester Road, Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1911
Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg – Plot H, Row 4, Grave 25
Casualty List 3/29/45
American Jews in World War II – 386

Masor
, Joseph, Pvt., 42103947, Purple Heart

United States Army, 10th Armored Division, 3rd Armored Tank Battalion
(parents), 108 Oraton St., Newark, N.J.
Born 1914
Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium – Plot E, Row 13, Grave 9
American Jews in World War II – 246

Ojalvo, Leon Joseph, S 1C, 7120266, Purple Heart
United States Navy, LST-359
Mr. Joseph Ojalvo (father), 1476 Wilkins Ave., Bronx, N.Y.

Tablets of the Missing at Brittany American Cemetery, St. James, France
American Jews in World War II – 401

Pilnick
, Eugene, PFC, 12226924, Purple Heart

United States Army, 87th Infantry Division, 347th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Robert Pilnick (father), 376 East 98th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 10/25/25
Long Island National Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y. – Section H, Grave 8616
Casualty List 2/15/45
American Jews in World War II – 405

Reidman
, Samuel, Pvt., 42037464, Purple Heart

United States Army, 101st Airborne Division, 321st Airborne Field Artillery Battalion
Mrs. Beatrice Reidman (wife), 215 Mount Hope Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1915
Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France – Plot B, Row 44, Grave 30
Casualty List 2/22/45
American Jews in World War II – 411

Rosen
, William, Pvt., 32693280, Purple Heart

United States Army, 10th Armored Division, 54th Armored Infantry Battalion
Mrs. Ruth Rosen (wife), 508 Horne Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1922
Henri-Chapelle Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium – Plot F, Row 13, Grave 37
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Veytsman
, Lev Lazarevich (Вейцман, Лев Лазаревич), Sergeant [Сержант]

U.S.S.R., Military Air Forces – VVS, 109th Riga Red Banner Aviation Regiment – Long Range
Aerial Gunner / Radio Operator
Aircraft: Probably Il-4
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V – 338
[Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том V – 338]

Zelmyer
, Milton L., T/Sgt., 31034748, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart

United States Army, 77th Infantry Division, 307th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Sarah Zelmyer (mother), 8 Edgemont Road, Brighton, Ma.
Born 1919
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot D, Row 16, Grave 126
American Jews in World War II – 186

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Lieutenants Kaufman and Silverman were passengers in a C-47A (43-16066) of the Army Air Force’s 815th Base Unit, which crashed 6 miles south of Ironton, Missouri.  Piloted by 2 Lt. James E. Gibson, there were no survivors among the aircraft’s five crew and passengers.  This incident is described in Volume 3 (covering August 1944 through December, 1945) of Anthony Mireles extraordinarily comprehensive Fatal Army Air Forces Aviation Accidents in the United States, 1941-1945.

Kaufman, Julian, 2 Lt., 0-819534, Navigator (flying as passenger)
Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. and Fanny Kaufman (parents); Bernard, Maurice, Mildred, Sheldon, and Stanley (brothers and sister), 921 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 5/2/22
Beth David Cemetery, Elmont, N.Y. – Section 1, Block 5, Harry & Meyer Kirschenbaum Society – Buried 12/24/44
Brooklyn Eagle 4/28/43
American Jews in World War II – 212, 359

Silverman, Harold, 2 Lt., 0-711037, Pilot (flying as passenger), Purple Heart
Mr. Joseph Silverman (father), 3652 Reading Road, Cincinnati, Oh.
Born Cincinnati, Oh.; 10/11/15
Walnut Hills Cemetery, Cincinnati, Oh. – Section 7, Lot 34, Grave 7
American Jews in World War II – 500

______________________________

Like Lieutenants Kaufman and Silverman, Lieutenant Julian E. Berger and Corporal Stanley Saffer lost their lives during a flying accident in the United States.  Their aircraft, B-24J Liberator 42-109686 of the 112th Army Air Force Base Unit, Squadron E, piloted by 2 Lt. James E. Webster, crashed  2 miles south of Granby, Massachusetts, while on a training mission.  Both airmen, along with bombardier 2 Lt. George E. Bennett of Brockport, New York, jumped from their aircraft in an attempt to parachute to safety, but the three did not survive.  The incident was reported in the Syracuse Herald-Journal, Niagara Falls Gazette, The Knickerbocker News (Albany), and Malone Evening Telegram.

Lt. Webster, his co-pilot, and an aerial gunner were seriously injured when the bomber crash-landed, while four others crewmen received injuries in parachute landings.  Akin to the C-47 mentioned above, the loss of this aircraft is also chronicled in Volume 3 (page 1003) of Anthony Mireles’ massive reference work, Fatal Army Air Forces Aviation Accidents in the United States, 1941-1945. 

Berger, Julian Edwin, 2 Lt., 0-2070237, Bombardier
Mr. and Mrs. William M. and Annie (Reamer) Berger (parents), 2804 Hilldale Ave., Baltimore, Md.
Miss Elaine Berger (sister)
Born 1925
Oheb Shalom Cemetery, Baltimore, Md.; Buried 12/24/44
Baltimore Sun 12/22/44
Jewish Times (Baltimore) 12/29/44
American Jews in World War II – 135

This portrait of Lieutenant Berger appeared in the Jewish Times (of Baltimore) on December 29, 1944.

Saffer, Stanley, Cpl., 12226364, Gunner (Nose Gunner)
Mr. and Mrs. Albert [died 9/13/80] and Della (Forman) [died 9/16/68] Saffer (parents), 200 Marcy Place, Bronx, N.Y.
Patricia Douglas and Steve Saffer (niece and nephew)
Born 1925
Mount Zion Cemetery, Maspeth, N.Y. – Path 18 Right, Gate 4, Grave 43, Rostover Society; Buried 12/24/44
American Jews in World War II – 425

This portrait of Corporal Saffer can be found at his commemorative profile at the Registry of the World War II National Memorial.  The image was donated by his niece and nephew, Patricia Douglas and Steve Saffer.

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Many names are listed above. 

Even more names – of men taken prisoner by the Germans on December 20, 1944 – are presented below. 

The large number of POWs is attributable to these men (primarily from the famous 28th “Keystone”  Infantry Division) having been captured on the fourth day of the Battle of the Bulge. 

Prisoners of War (United States Army – Ground Forces – European Theater)

Aronowitz, Bernard, Pvt., 42134961, 103rd Infantry Division, 409th Infantry Regiment
Baskin, Jack, Pvt., 35912487, 103rd Infantry Division, 409th Infantry Regiment
Bayarsky, Joseph, S/Sgt., 32248209, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Bernstein, Albert J., PFC, 36014907, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Bloom, Nathan, PFC, 32248834, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Brill, Leonard, Pvt., 32248813, 8th Infantry Division, 28th Infantry Regiment
Epstein, Melvin, Sgt., 42046239
Falstein, Lawrence I., PFC, 36694283, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Feldman, Hyman, Sgt., 31038475, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Flatow, Joseph, Pvt., 32937317, Luxembourg, 110th Infantry Regiment
Fox, Irwin, Sgt., 42044375, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Fried, Philip K., Pvt., 12220163, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Friedman, Arthur, Pvt., 35913924, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Golden, Max, PFC, 42126564, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Goldstein, Jack, Pvt., 32086599, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, Headquarters Company
Goodman, Julius L., Pvt., 36694176, 4th Infantry Division, 12th Infantry Regiment
Gottlieb, Eli D., PFC, 42045939, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Grainsky, Milton, 2 Lt., 0-1017355
Greengold, Martin, PFC, 32247936, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Gross, Sidney, PFC, 42130690, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Herzstein, Norman J., PFC, 32071886, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Himmelfarb, Solomon, T/4, 32866308, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Horowitz, Aaron, Sgt., 32885417, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Hurwitz, Harlan E., Pvt., 31261986, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Jaffie, Herman, PFC, 32970744, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Kaplan, Frank L., Sgt., 36266213, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Katz, Sam, S/Sgt., 32257570, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment

______________________________


Kimmelman
, Benedict B., Capt., 0-351208, 28th Infantry Division, Headquarters Regiment, Silver Star, Bronze Star medal
Dental Surgeon
POW at Stalag 4B (Muhlberg)
Mrs. Rita (Apfelbaum) Kimmelman (wife); Mark (son), 2930 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Dr. Simon Kimmelman (father), 2127 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born Philadelphia, Pa.; 7/20/15 – Died 8/5/99
The Jewish Exponent 3/23/45, 11/30/45
Philadelphia Inquirer 4/24/45, 5/27/45, 6/8/45, 6/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 532

This photo of Captain Kimmelman (incorrectly captioned “Kinnelman”!) appeared in the Philadelphia Bulletin on June 15, 1945

I had the good fortune to meet and interview Doctor (formerly Captain) Kimmelman in January of 1991, concerning his experiences in the Army – “in general” – and as a Jewish prisoner of war of the Germans, in particular.  Our talk touching on a variety of related (and perhaps not-so-related!) topics, as well. 

I hope to present audio files of our conversation in the future.

Until that hopeful moment (!), here is a photo of Dr. Kimmelman in dental school, which I received as a memento of our meeting.

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Kuttner, Arthur P., Pvt., 42036123, 8th Infantry Division, 28th Infantry Regiment
Leibowitz, Nathan, PFC, 32248777, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Lenetsky, Benjamin, T/4, 33051351, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Levine, Jack E., Pvt., 32903168, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Osterman, Horace, Pvt., 12221283, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Perlman, Julius, PFC, 42131929, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Plushner, Sam, PFC, 42129871, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Pupkin, Saul A., S/Sgt., 32244156, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Rotaple, David, Pvt., 32883105, 4th Infantry Division, 12th Infantry Regiment
Sagat, Milton S., Pvt., 36771506, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Samuels, Jack I., PFC, 35055434, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Schmertzler, Jack, PFC, 42036661, 4th Infantry Division, 12th Infantry Regiment
Schwartz, Melvin, PFC, 32084390, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Segal, Robert, Pvt., 13178319, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Seiden, Morton, PFC, 42093573, 4th Infantry Division, 12th Infantry Regiment
Silvey, Mortimer I., Pvt., 32785612, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Spector, Sidney, Cpl., 32218375
Stern, Paul, T/5, 12110879, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Stresow, Daniel, PFC, 32105789, 4th Infantry Division, 12th Infantry Regiment
Wolinsky, Harry, PFC, 32195287, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Wormser, Donald L., S/Sgt., 32247980, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment

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Of soldiers captured on December 20, 1944, the eleven men listed below, part of a contingent of 350 men (entirely Privates and PFCs) would, after having been imprisoned at Stalag 9B (Bad Orb, Germany) be segregated from their fellow POWs and sent to a sub camp for American POWs at Berga an der Elster (also known as “Berga-am-Elster”), Germany, known as Arbeitskommando 625.  This event is one of two known incidents in which the Germans separated American Jewish prisoners of war from their fellow POWs.  The group of 350 was comprised of soldiers known to have been Jews (77 men), the remaining 273 having been men with – in the perception and belief of their captors – “ethnic” surnames; individuals who were “trouble makers”; and, soldiers simply arbitrarily chosen to complete the contingent. 

Of the 350 soldiers, 76 did not survive, a fatality rate of 22%.

A similar event – with an altogether different conclusion – occurred at Stalag Luft I, at Barth, Germany, in January of 1945, and involved the segregation of an undetermined number (probably the majority of) the approximately 300 Jewish POWs at that camp.  In the case of Stalag Luft I, however, the Jewish POWs remained at the camp until its liberation by Soviet Troops.    

The ordeal of the 350 POWs at Berga-am-Elster has been covered in two books and one documentary film.

The books – both released in 2005 – are:  Soldiers and Slaves : American POWs Trapped by the Nazis’ Final Gamble, by Roger Cohen and Michael Prichard, and, Given Up For Dead : American GIs in the Nazi Concentration Camp at Berga, by Flint Whitlock.  A review of Whitlock’s book by John Robert White can be found at H-Net Reviews, under the title Fitting Berga into the History of World War II and the Holocaust.  

The documentary, Berga: Soldiers of Another War, was the subject of reviews and discussions by the International Documentary Association (Kevin Lewis – Remembering the POWs of ‘Berga’: Guggenheim’s Final Film Celebrates His Army Unit) and The New York Times (Ned Martel – G.I.s Condemned to.Slave Labor in the Holocaust).  The last project of documentary film-maker Charles Guggenheim, Soldiers of Another War was released in May of 2003, eight months after his death.

The eleven men listed below, all of whom survived captivity, were among the 350:

Blaiss, Amiel L., Pvt., 7008153, 28th Infantry Division, 112th Infantry Regiment
Dantowitz, Philip, Pvt., 11120234, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Fahrer, Samuel, Pvt., 32720856, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion, B Company

______________________________

Goodman, Sydney L., Pvt., 36889334, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, M Company
POW at Stalag 9B (Bad Orb) and Berga-am-Elster
Mrs. Grace K. Goodman (wife), 3250 Calvert St., Detroit, MI. (Townsend 8-9766)
Mr. Nathan Goodman (father)
Born Detroit, Mi., 9/4/17; Died 12/26/05
Casualty List 6/4/45
Jew News (Detroit) 4/6/45, 6/8/45, 1/5/2006
American Jews in World War Two – Not Listed

The image below shows Private Sydney Goodman and his daughter in front of the family home on Calvert Street, well prior to Sydney’s departure for Europe. 

______________________________

Lemberg, Meyer, PFC, 36607755, 28th Infantry Division, 112th Infantry Regiment
Levkov, Harry, PFC, 32262238, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Headquarters Company
Lipson, Sidney Jacob, Pvt., 11083155, 28th Infantry Division, 112th Infantry Regiment, L Company
Lubinsky, Sanford Melvin, PFC, 35555186, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Headquarters Company
Melnick, Bernard, PFC, 32828896, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, Cannon Company
Shapiro, William J., Pvt., 42040855, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment
Steckler, Daniel D., PFC, 32961312, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, M Company

______________________________

A small number of the Jewish Privates at Bad Orb managed to avoid being segregated and sent to Berga-am-Elster, thus remaining at Stalag 9B until the camp’s liberation.  Among these fortunate men was Private Edwin H.J. Cornell (family name originally Cohen) of Rochester, New York, who received the moral support, solidarity, and practical advice of his very good friend Private First Class Frederick Stetler Roys of Michigan.  Also a member of K Company, 110th Infantry Regiment, 28th Infantry Division, Frederick was likewise captured on December 20, 1944.

Cornell, Edwin H.J., Pvt., 42028822, 28th Infantry Division, 110th Infantry Regiment, K Company
POW at Stalag 9B (Bad Orb, Germany)
Mr. and Mrs. Solomon H. and Helen E. Cornell (parents), S1C Harvey B. Cornell (brother), 383 Barrington St., Rochester, N.Y.
Born Rochester, N.Y.; 10/20/22
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 5/11/45
Rochester Times-Union 10/20/43, 5/15/44, 4/19/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

An article in the Rochester Times-Union, on May 3, 1944, showing Edwin, his sister Arlene, and brother in law Sergeant Fred B. Kravetz.

Old Newspapers

Edwin’s portrait, as it appeared in a Rochester Times-Union news item of April 19, 1945, announcing his liberation.   

Edwin 47 years later, in 1992.  He passed away on October 24, 2014.

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Edwin’s friend, Private Frederick Roys at home in Muskegon, Michigan, prior to being deployed overseas. 

Postwar:  Fred’s marriage to Catherine A. Wrege on November 18, 1945, at Percy Jones Hospital, Calhoun, Michigan.  Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania to Everett and Elfrieda (Stetler) Roys in February of 1925, Fred passed away in Michigan in August of 1994.  Two years before – in 1992 – Fred related his wartime (and postwar) story to me in very (very) great detail.  Perhaps someday I’ll add excerpts of that interview to this post…

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Wounded in Action

Kane, Morton, Pvt., 42058863, Purple Heart, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster (in Germany)
United States Army, 103rd Infantry Division, 411th Infantry Regiment, A Company
KIA subsequently – on 3/21/45
Mrs. Esther B. Katz (mother), 1273 Clay Ave., Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1924
Casualty Lists 3/12/45, 4/17/45, 4/19/45
American Jews in World War II – 355

Farkowitz, Eugene, PFC, Purple Heart (in France)
United States Army, Armored Division
Wounded previously – ~ 10/20/44
Mr. Adoph Farkowitz (brother), 63-139 Alderton St., Forest Hills, N.Y.
Born Austria, 1915
Butcher in brother’s Manhattan shop
Casualty Lists 12/20/44, 4/12/45
American Jews in World War II – 305

Evaded Capture – Returned to Duty (Circumstances Unknown)

Ginsburg, Howard A., 2 Lt., 0-2056696, Bombardier
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 455th Bomb Group, 741st Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Anna N. Ginsburg (mother), 609 West Washington St., Chicago, Il.
MACR 10714; Aircraft: B-24G 42-78166, “Rosalie Mae”; Pilot: 1 Lt. Donald L. Bone; 10 crewmen – all survived
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

References

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom – Compiled by the Bureau of War Records of the National Jewish Welfare Board, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Kulka, Erich, Zide Československém Vojsku na Západé, Naše Vojsko, Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1992

Mireles, Anthony J., Fatal Army Air Forces Aviation Accidents in the United States, 1941-1945 – Volume 3: August 1944 – December, 1945, Appendices, Indexes, McFarland & Company Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948

Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume V [Surnames beginning with А (A), Б (B), В (V), Г (G), Д (D), Е (E), Ж (Zh), З (Z), И (I), К (K)], Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 1998

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Double Jeopardy Remembered – The Reminiscences of a Jewish Prisoner of War

My recent blog post, covering Sergeant Ralph Gans of the Bronx, included a list of Jewish soldiers who were military casualties on January 31, 1945.  However, that list was not complete.    

The names of two American airmen appear in this “separate” post, because one of those aviators – Leonard Winograd – recounted the events of his capture, interrogation, and imprisonment some three decades later, in an essay: “Double Jeopardy What an American Army Officer, a Jew, Remembers of Prison Life in Germany”. 

He and his eleven fellow crew members were captured after their B-24 Liberator bomber failed to return from a mission to Moosbierbaum, Austria, on a day which marked the loss of at least thirteen 15th Air Force B-24s.  They were members of the 512th Bomb Squadron of the 376th (“Liberandos”) Bomb Group (15th Air Force).  The loss of their aircraft, B-24H 41-28911, piloted by 1 Lt. Robert E. Andrus, is covered in MACR 12066, and Luftgaukommando Reports ME 2776 and 2777.  The entire crew of 12 survived, with two men evading capture.

Rabbi Winograd’s essay was published in the American Jewish Archives in April of 1976, and reprinted in The Jewish Veteran three months later. 

It is presented here, in its entirety. 

Rabbi Winograd’s story is one that is marked by elements of irony and humor (well, of a sort…) and more importantly, insights about the challenges and dangers (imagined, and also very genuine) of being a Jewish prisoner of war of the Germans.  Let alone, the challenges of simply being a POW – “per se”. 

Rabbi Winograd accorded notable attention to the predicament of fellow crewman T/Sgt. Gerald Einhorn, a substitute crew member who was filling in for the Andrus crew’s own (ill) ball turret gunner that January Tuesday.  This was particularly so in light of Einhorn’s defiance of the crew’s German captors (which reaction elicited an intriguing comment from another POW) in the context of Einhorn’s status as a refugee from Hitler.    

Though Einhorn was never seen again after being wounded during a strafing attack by P-47 Thunderbolt fighters, he did survive the war.  The owner of a hardware store in Brooklyn, he died in 1983, at the young age of 61.  His wife, Gertrude (“Gittel”) (Yaskransky) Einhorn, passed away in 2005.    

One wonders if Gerald Einhorn ever read Rabbi Winograd’s story.  I suppose the answer to that question can never be answered.  What can be answered and verified is that Einhorn was, as recorded by Rabbi Winograd, from Eastern Europe; born in Romania in July of 1922, his parents were Samuel and Mathilda.  Their fate is another question, the answer to which is also unknown.  

In a larger sense, Rabbi Winograd’s account is one of the innumerable stories comprising the great body of writing – some fiction; some non-fiction; some, “some”-where between – concerning the experience of prisoners of war during the Second World War.  In itself, this literature is but one facet of the vast body of writing covering the experience of prisoners of war, of all military conflicts, “in general”. 

What is notable about Rabbi Winograd’s account is that was published relatively “early”, compared to the bulk of such accounts (whether books or articles), which began to appear before the public – at least in the United States – roughly commencing in the mid- to late 1980s. 

What is equally notable is that it addresses – albeit through the eyes of one man, over the limited time-frame of four months (well, very much can happen in four months!) – the implications of being a Jewish prisoner of war in the European Theater, in light of the ideological priorities, social and geopolitical aims, and actions of Germany (and to a lesser extent its allies) concerning the Jews.    

In that regard, it one among many such stories.  But, how many?   

From reviewing a very wide variety of sources – books and articles; archival and published; print and digital – I’ve arrived at the following approximate numbers of Jewish soldiers who, having been captured by Axis forces, survived the Second World War as POWs. 

United States Army (European, Mediterranean, and Pacific Theaters): 1,530
United States Army Air Force (European, Mediterranean, and Pacific Theaters):  1,310
United States Marine Corps and Navy: 80
Australia (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 80
Canada (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 70
England (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 415
Greece:  70
South Africa (all theaters of war; all branches of service): 360
The Yishuv (pre-1948 Israel): 1,280

(A caveat:  The above totals do not include Jewish prisoners of war from Belgium, France, and the Netherlands.  They also do not include the extraordinarily few Jewish soldiers of the Polish, and particularly the Soviet armed forces, who survived German captivity.  This must be viewed in the context and nature of Germany’s war against the Soviet Union, one aspect of which was the calculated inhumanity of German treatment of Soviet POWs.) 

In any event, many if not most of these stories were probably never told; even fewer were probably recorded.  Of those that were recorded, how many have been preserved?    

Well…a few. 

And this is one.    

A link to a PDF transcript of Rabbi Winograd’s story follows this post’s list of references. 

But first, begin with a series of photographs of the Andrus crew…

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The following image, from the 376th Bomb Group wesbite, also appears in Rabbi Winograd’s book Rabies is Jewish Priests, and depicts his crew after their arrival in North Africa in August, 1944, while en route to Italy.  

The men are the following:

Standing, left to right:

Bob Andrus (pilot)
Chappy Campbell (Radio operator)
Len Winograd
Bob Ruetsch (gunner)
Tom Sabatino (gunner)

Kneeling, left to right:

Bob Cartier (bombardier)
Lane Carlton
Carl Rudisill (gunner)
Bob Corbett (flight engineer)

The aircraft – Mary Ellen – was named after the wife of aircraft commander Paul George (not in the photo), who does not appear in the photo.

The same image as above, as it appears in Rabbi Winograd’s book.

Mary Ellen, B-24J 42-50960, squadron number 85, did not survive the war.  The aircraft was lost on November 11, 1944, while taking part in a high-altitude bombing mission to Mezzocorona, Italy. 

As described by 1 Lt. Eugene B. De Fillipo, who was flying on the plane’s right wing, Mary Ellen – piloted by 1 Lt. Walter W. Mader with a crew of ten – was last seen over the Adriatic Sea, about half way between Ancona and the Croatian coastal island of Dugi Otok.  The two planes entered clouds at 0925 hours.  Fifteen minutes later, when Lieutenant De Fillipo emerged into clear sky, Mary Ellen was missing.  The incident is covered in MACR 9858.

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Another image of the Andrus crew, also from the 376th BG website.

Standing, left to right:

Robert F. Corbett – Flight Engineer
Robert J. Cartier – Bombardier
Robert E. Andrus – Pilot
Leonard Winograd – Navigator

Kneeling, left to right:

Carl P. Rudisill – Nose Gunner
Robert D. Ruetsch – Ball Turret Gunner
Thomas G. Sabatino – Tail Gunner
Emory L. Carlton – Waist Gunner
Robert G. Campbell – Radio Operator

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This image of the Andrus crew – taken just after their return from a mission on December 14, 1944 – is from the collection of Robert Ruetsch, seventeen of whose photographs are present at his photo page on the 376th BG website

Standing, left to right:

Unknown
Leonard Winograd – navigator
Donald H. Boulineu – Pilot
Robert E. Andrus – Co-Pilot
Unknown

Kneeling, left to right:

Unknown
Unknown
Robert D. Ruetsch – Ball Turret Gunner
Unknown
Unknown

According to Robert Ruetsch’s comments, “these other men were probably part of the crew that day”:

Robert F. Corbett – Flight Engineer
Robert J. Cartier – Bombardier
Carl P. Rudisill – Nose Turret Gunner
Thomas G. Sabatino – Tail Turret Gunner
Emory L. Carlton – Waist Gunner
Robert G. Campbell – Radio Operator

The Liberator which serves as the backdrop B-24H 42-95285, squadron number 22, otherwise known as Red Ryder.  The plane was lost during a mission to Linz, Austria, on November 7, 1944.  Piloted by 2 Lt. Phillip R. Scott, the plane (based on my interpretation of the MACR) either crash-landed on Vis Island, or ditched in the Adriatic Sea.  In any event, four of the plane’s eleven crewmen were killed.  Three of the plane’s four engines suffered a simultaneous loss of power coupled with mechanical problems: #1 engine was “out”, #2 engine “ran away”, and a third engine had become uncontrollable.  The incident is covered in post-war high-numbered “fill in” Missing Air Crew Report: # 16500. 

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Here is another view of the Andrus crew, also from the Ruetsch photo collection.

Standing, left to right:

Robert J. Cartier
Robert D. Ruetsch
Leonard Winograd
Unknown
Robert F. Corbett
Unknown

Kneeling, left to right:

Donald H. Boulineau
Thomas G. Sabatino
Carl P. Rudisill
Robert G. Campbell
Emory Lane Carlton

Like Red Ryder and Mary Ellen, the B-24 in this image also did not survive the war.  The plane B-24H 42-51183, was nicknamed Bad Penny, squadron number 27.  The aircraft was lost during a mission to the Moosbierbuam Oil Refineries in Austria on January 31, 1945.  Piloted by 1 Lt. Wante J. Bartol, nine of the bomber’s ten crew members survived the mission.  The sole casualty was bombardier 2 Lt. Leonard N. Tocco, who was murdered (shot) by German soldiers almost immediately after safely landing by parachute, despite offering no resistance to capture.

The incident is covered in MACR 12067.  It is also covered in Luftgaukommando Report ME 204A.  Regarding the latter, Luftgaukommando Reports suffixed “A” probably pertained to American air crews from which at least some crew members were known by the Germans to have evaded capture.  This would be consistent with the fate of the Bartol crew, for of the plane’s nine survivors, eight seem to have escaped, with T/Sgt. Mark D. Striman (radio operator) being taken prisoner.

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Another image from Rabbi Winograd’s book:  “A group of the neighborhood children in Italy come out to play in the snow, January 30, 1945.  It was the first snow in southern Italy in some 25 years.  The two without hats are a future rabbi and a future university president.  This was the day before our bomber went down.  Who would have guessed that in less than 24 hours, our crew would be missing in action.”

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Another image from the Ruetsch collection, showing Lieutenants Boulineau, Winograd, and Cartier, in front of their tent. 

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An excellent portrait of Rabbi (then, Lieutenant) Winograd, in front of a 512th Bomb Squadron B-24.  The squadron insignia – a skull superimposed on a propeller and cross-bones – is as visually striking as it is symbolic.   This picture accompanies Rabbi Winograd’s article in the April, 1976 issue of the American Jewish Archives, but does not appear in either Rabies is Jewish Priests, or, the reprint of the AJA article in the July, 1976 issue of The Jewish Veteran.

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A uniform patch of the 512th Bomb Squadron insignia.

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The following account, from the 376th BG website, is Lt. Andrus’ story of the loss of B-24H 41-28911.

“With three engines feathered, the B-24’s flight characteristics approximate that of a large, round ball of lead dropped from a great height.”

Much to our surprise on the afternoon of Jan 30, 1944 [should be 1945] I found that my crew was scheduled to fly the next day’s mission. Under the normal rotation we should not have been scheduled for at least two more days. Further, we were to fly the number 7 (slot) position which was usually reserved for newer, less experienced crews. Adding to the confusion was the fact that we not going to fly our usual aircraft but were to take the brand new B-24H that the squadron had received a few days earlier.

All my efforts to find out what was going on were non productive. Sqd Ops finally told me that they had been directed by Group Operations to schedule me by name to fly that aircraft in the slot on tomorrows mission and I would probably find out why at the morning briefing. Very strange!

At the morning briefing I learned that the 376th would be the last group in the bomber stream, the target was Moosbierbaum and the flak would be intense. It quickly became apparent that since the 512th box was tail-end Charlie in the group formation, I would be the last ship over the target. It wasn’t until we arrived at the hardstand where our aircraft was parked that I finally found out what was going on.

Both the Gp Ops officer and the Gp Intel. officer were waiting for me and introduced me to my newest crew member: an aerial photographer. I was then briefed that my mission was to bomb the target with the 512th and when they rallied off after they dropped their ordinance I was to make a 180 degree turn and return to the IP and make another run over the target. It seems they suspected the oil refinery had long since been destroyed and was being camouflaged to appear operational. Our second run over the target would hopefully provide bomb damage photography taken before they had an opportunity to reemploy their camouflage. I was then advised that we had been selected to fly this mission because we were experienced and had one of the most competent navigators in the Group, Len Winograd.

The aircraft we were to fly was basically an “H” model that had been modified at the factory during its manufacture. The nose turret was eliminated and a huge, 7-lens mosaic camera which incorporated the bomb sight was installed in its place. The photographer had received over 150 hours of experimental training on a similar camera that had been installed in a modified B-24D back in the states. Although I was introduced to him at the hardstand, I am unable to remember his name.

He and Flight Officer Durham, the bombardier who was receiving his mandatory checkout flight brought the number of crew members on this flight to twelve.

The flight to the target was normal; the aircraft performed beautifully and fuel consumption was less than normal. There was absolutely no indication of the problem we were later to encounter. During this portion of the flight I briefed the crew on intercom about our additional mission. When I finished, there was a moment of silence and then a voice on the intercom said, “hey, I ain’t gonna go unless I get extra mission credit.” This brought on lots of laughter.

As I recall, the bomb run was flown at 23,000 feet and although the flak was very heavy, we received only minimum damage. After the bomb drop, the flight made a descending right turn to clear the area as rapidly as possible. I maintained 23,000 feet and flew a racetrack pattern back to the IP. Once we were established on the track back to the target I turned control of the aircraft over to the photographer who was using the bombsight as a view finder for the camera. While the flak continued to be heavy on this run, we received minimal battle damage.

After completing the photo run I made a right descending turn and picked up the heading for return to base. Almost immediately the right outboard engine started to fail. Fuel pressure fluctuated wildly and although the manifold pressure gauge indicated we were not getting any power, I was unable to control the engine RPMs. This left me no choice but to shut down the engine and feather the prop.

A check of the fuel sight gauges indicated plenty of fuel for the return to base. Despite this, all engine instruments clearly showed the loss of the engine was due to fuel starvation. Just as I made the decision to unfeather the engine, the same problem began with the right inboard engine. Using the feathering button to keep the RPMs from exceeding the max allowable we tried everything we could think of to overcome the power loss. Cross feeding the fuel tanks, swapping the electronic control boxes for the turbo superchargers all failed to correct the problem.

With two engines on the same side feathered, the flying characteristics of a combat configured B-24 left much to be desired. Forced to begin a descent in order to maintain minimum flying speed, I directed the crew to jettison everything in the aircraft not required to maintain flight. While I still held out hope that we would have sufficient altitude to make it over the Alps, the left inboard engine failed inexactly the same manner.

With three engines feathered, the B-24’s flight characteristics approximate that of a large, round ball of lead dropped from a great height. It was very depressing to know that we had all that fuel on board and not be able to access it.

By this time we were down in a box canyon of the generic Alps in northern Yugoslavia and descending through 9,000 feet. Since there was no alternative, I directed the crew to bailout. This was in the vicinity of Bijac, Yugoslavia. I was immediately captured and remained a POW for the duration of the war.

Liberation and return to allied military control came on April 29, 1945. In the latter part of May, 1945 while undergoing processing and rehabilitation at Camp Lucky Strike, LeHavre, France, I was interviewed and debriefed by US Army Intelligence agents. It seems that an identical camera-equipped B-24H had been delivered to the 98th Bomb Group at Lecce and it went down on its first mission under the same circumstances that we had experienced. This raised suspicions of sabotage and an investigation was conducted. It revealed that during manufacture someone had installed pressure-sensitive check valves in the main fuel lines to each engine. The valves remained inoperable until someone removed a small easily accessible pin to activate them. They were designed to remain open while climbing and maintaining constant altitude and close, shutting off the fuel supply, when encountering increasing barometric pressure i.e. a descending aircraft. The saboteur was apprehended and the valves were removed from the remaining four camera-equipped B-24s.

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And, here is Rabbi Winograd’s story…

DOUBLE JEOPARDY
American Jewish Archives
April, 1976

What an American Army Officer, a Jew,
Remembers of Prison Life in Germany

Dr. Winograd is a member of the Jacob Greenfield Post in McKeesport, Pa.  He’s also the rabbi of Temple B’Nai Israel.

They were always things you overheard, things not meant for your ears, not intended for you, not directed at or about you.  But the words were in the air.  You could hear them at night in that tension before sleep released you from longing.  I remember hearing two British or South African pilots talking about a British prisoner whose name may have been Gordon.

“Didn’t you know?  He’s a Jew – a Russland Jew?”

“After the war, we’ll fight them.”

I will never know whether he meant that, after the war, England (or South Africa) would have to fight the Jews or the Russians.  I heard one of us referred to as a “Kike” because he had argued with the German guards.  His name was Einhorn.  He was a refugee from Hitler.  Hungarian Jews were dying at the rate of 12,000 a day at Auschwitz.  Our own belly gunner was in the hospital with pneumonia so Einhorn, Hungarian Jew, had flown with our crew on the day we bailed out.  Einhorn was unknown to me before this mission because at our base in Italy, officer flying personnel rarely got to know the enlisted flying personnel socially except, of course, for members of one’s own crew.  Einhorn was apparently a fellow with enough guts to tell off the men who captured him or who were taking him on a train to yet another place.  This frightened the other men who had been captured with Einhorn, as they were not personally involved in World War II, even if they, too, were prisoners of war in Germany.  To the Jew this was deeply personal – no matter how hard you tried to deny it.

More of the One Than of the Other

We had bailed out over Yugoslavia after bombing a synthetic oil refinery somewhere in Austria.  We came down in a part of Bosnia in which there was a great deal of guerilla warfare.  Two of the crew were picked up immediately by the Yugoslav Tito Red Partisans.  They were back at our base in Italy in five days.  [Aerial Gunner S/Sgt. Carl B. Rudisill, and, Observer F/O Edward J. Derham]  One of these two men was riding along on a first mission just to see what happens in combat.  [Derham]  He evaded capture, which indicates how much training, experience, intelligence briefings, and knowledge of escape procedure can accomplish.  About five of the crew came down in about the same place and were picked up almost immediately.  I think that Einhorn was in that group, along with the crew member who had griped to me that Einhorn was like “those Kikes from Brownsville.”  [Name in MACR…]  I was reassured that Einhorn was not like me.  Another four men or so must have come down in another place because they were captured and brought in after the first group had left for Germany.  I was the last one captured and I joined this group at a barracks in the mountains.  My capture came after three days and two nights of hiding by day and traveling by night, avoiding all people and also wolves and bears who were after me and had me badly frightened.

The idea was that you hid in the daytime and traveled at night, heading always south until one came to a city or a penguin, in which case you had apparently overdone things again.  But, while I was holed up in the snow, with tracks from my boots leading to the hole and no tracks leading from the hole, several German soldiers came by, looking for me, I assume.  They had great big dogs with them.  They walked within six feet of my hole and never bothered to investigate because, after all, no one wants to fill out all those forms, I guess.

Well, I saw a crucifix on a building and since I had heard about the priests and nuns in Belgium who believed in God and would help Jews trying to evade capture, I decided to chance it.  I stood up.  (I had been crawling on my belly because according to the movies, that way you became a smaller target.)  I started walking toward what I assumed would be a church.  Very soon I realized that it was no church at all.  In those moments when I still thought it was a church, I had decided that all I would ask for was some hot water.  I was freezing.  Just some hot water.  Very soon I realized that this was no church at all.  It was a cemetery chapel.  Some little children had seen me and had run to get the German sentries.  Two German sentries.  Well, Germans are nothing if not thorough.  Imagine, two guards in a cemetery!

The guards asked me, Americano?”  I answered, “No.”  They asked me, “Italiano?”  I answered, “Americano.”  I felt that since Germany and Italy were allies, I had better hot tell them that I was Italian since I wanted them to like me.

They took me to meet an officer.  It might have been a headquarters or an officers’ club or something.  I was in a daze.  But I remember that they immediately brought in an interpreter who right off the bat asked me if I had ever been to Kaufman’s in Pittsburgh.  From the few words I had said, he had spotted my Pittsburgh brogue.  The official questions came in correct order – name, rank, serial number, religion.  I answered them all to the best of my ability, and when I told them that I was a Jew, I sensed excitement in the room.  I am very perceptive that way.  All the mouths were wide open now.

Then I remember that even though they kept referring to us as fellow officers, in my case it was not quite the same thing.  The major (who was a German major in Bihacs in the winter of ‘45?) claimed to be from Vienna and told me that he had many Jewish friends (my knee jerk reaction being that one was supposed to beware of Gentiles who said that some of their best friends were Jews – as if it would be safer to be with a Nazi who said that some of his worst enemies were Jews!)

Studying Journalism

Meanwhile, they had insisted that I take off some of my wet clothes.  This, I assumed, was for the purpose of torturing me.  Then they brought me some hot soup – poison no doubt!  Anyhow, the soup was about the best I ever ate in my life.  It probably did not have the antibiotic potential of chicken soup, but no soup I ever ate tasted as good.  As for the clothes, they merely wanted to dry them off.  I had recalled the Geneva Convention when I created that sensation by telling them what my religion was, and so I realized that I had better not talk anymore.  So I would not talk.  The translator had gotten angry with me at one point when I answered a question before he had translated it, despite the fact that I knew no German at all, but, as I explained, German was a lot like Yiddish.  Sometimes I could understand the questions without waiting for the translation.  I imagine that a lot of German anti-Semitism came from translators who feared that if they were not needed in Yugoslavia, they might have to go to the Russian front where it was just as cold and hot besides.  In wartime, that could be hazardous.

One example of how being a Jew affected response to interrogation: When I was asked what I was studying in college, I was ashamed to tell the Germans that I was in the School of Business Administration because in those days anti-Semites thought that all Jews were rich and were in business.  So I told them that I was studying journalism.  (This only shows how naive I was.  Now they could accuse Jews of trying to control the media!)

But from that time on, I was intent on hiding within my group.  None of my crew ever discussed this with me nor did I tell them what was on my mind.  I always sought the back of formations, covered my face with my hands like a criminal whenever I was visible to Germans, and tried very hard not to be conspicuous.

Our select group soon included a South African pilot with the fantastic name of Paul Kreuger [actually, Lieutenant Peter Krueger (207053)] and there was also a South African observer whom we had seen get shot down one day as Ukrainian SS stood over me with whips in their hands while I cowered on the floor in hopes that they wouldn’t use them.  (No congregation really frightens me.)  We were escorted by three old men who were given rations for our trip to “someplace.”  They kept our cigarette rations for themselves, but did give us enough food and a lot of organic fertilizer.  We knew that they were stealing our cigarettes, but we were like Lolita with Humbert.  They were all we had.  They were kind of old, and we were extremely young, so we carried the guns and they carried the rations.  After all, if we escaped, could they eat guns!  They wanted to be sure that they would have enough to eat.

The boys from the 512th Squadron of the 376th Bomb Group were carrying German rifles while their guards carried the heavy packages of food.  We called them Superman No. 1, Superman No. 2, and Sleeping Jesus.  The names had come about so innocently!  Bobbie Johnstown was a nineteen-year-old co-pilot who had the face of a Gerber model.  We had to carry him everywhere because of his frozen feet.  He couldn’t walk.  He could run like hell when we were being bombed by our own planes, but he couldn’t walk, so we carried him.  Well, it was one of those moments when our guards were totally exhausted.  Bobbie had referred to them as “Supermen.”  When we gasped, he asked, “Well, aren’t they?”  It was all very funny, especially that part about Sleeping Jesus.  I, of course, as the Jew in residence, never referred to the Alsatian guard as sleeping Jesus.  I left that for the other crew buddies, it wasn’t for me to say.  Anyone could tell that I must have been a Jew.  I didn’t joke about Jesus.  See why it is dumb to object to the Gentile who says that some of his best friends are Jews.  If you are any kind of a Jew at all, everyone knows it.  For one thing, you don’t joke about Jesus.

On the trains, our guards were supposed to protect us from the German populace.  One of these guards, Superman No. 1, had an uncle in Milwaukee.  This guard told a German passenger combat soldier that I was a Jew.  The soldier gave me a cigarette without comment and without any show of anger or hatred.  And cigarettes were very scarce in that time and place.

Big Generals and Jews

Finally, we arrived at Frankfurt on the Main.  We went directly to the cellar of the railroad station to sweat out a night bombing.  There we met a Russian prisoner, a Pole, and several Frenchmen.  We joked that the Russian had surrounded Vienna, but the German army had apparently broken his siege and captured him.  Seriously, though, it was quite touching.  The Russian, on learning that I was an American, took out a silver cigarette case and held it close to his body so that I could not see what was in it.  What was in the silver cigarette case?  About a half dozen cigarette butts.  For some reason, he did not want me to know that he was giving me the largest cigarette butt he owned.  It could have meant many things, but it was wonderful to taste the appreciation of an ally.

A few minutes later, euphoric because of the swig of wine which I had gotten from the newly captured French prisoner, I opened my heart a fraction of an inch to him.  I really thought that all Frenchmen were libertarian, egalitarian, and fraternal, like in Warner Brothers war films.  So I told this brand new comrade in incarceration that I was a Jew and that I was afraid that they would kill me.  Then he let me know that he could not believe that I was a Jew because I was a soldier.  Just about then the German who was guarding the Russian, the Pole, and the Frenchmen became chummy and philosophical.  Being in a cellar during an air raid does that for you.  War, he said, was no good.  We all agreed.  Then he went on to refine his statement.  War, he now said, was good only for the big generals and the Jews.  It had been different at the prison camp for French prisoners in Vienna.  A French POW there had been in Poland and had seen the Nazi death camps where Jews were exterminated, and he had told me what was going on.  He probably would not have agreed that war was good for the Jews.

Finally, we left the cellar of the railroad station and went to an air force interrogation center near Frankfurt.  I was put in solitary confinement.  We all were, I think.  They made the room so hot that I could not stand it and so removed most of my clothing.  As soon as I did that, they made it so cold that I had to put all the clothing back on again.  This happened several times over several hours.  Then I was taken to interrogation where, for the first time, the fact that I was a Jew became a weapon in the hands of the Germans.  By now I had been a prisoner for about a month.

The interrogator was a one man Mutt-and-Jeff act.  You know, in prison work, one detective is the good guy and one is the bad guy.  Well, this was the good guy.  The bad guy would bet me if I did not play along with the good guy.  It worked like this: I refused to give any information other than my name, rank, and serial number.  I refused because the Geneva Convention promised that no one was allowed to require more than such information of me.  All he wanted was for me to tell him one thing to establish the fact that I was not an underground terrorist or, as he put it, a “bandit.”

Sorry.  No luck.

So, he went on to tell me how he had had good childhood friends who were Jews, but who had gone to America because of the Nazis.  He, of course, was no Nazi.  Perhaps I knew his friends?  He told me their names.  No, I did not know them.  Well, the officer explained, that was too bad because he certainly had nothing against Jews, but the Gestapo was in charge of all suspected underground terrorists and, unless I talked, he would have to turn me over to the Gestapo.  He advised me that they would not be as considerate of my feelings or my safety as the German Air Force would be.  If I could get myself registered as an air force prisoner of war, the Luftwaffe, the German air force, would be responsible for me.  Otherwise, the Gestapo would get me.  This was the second big fact about being a Jew in this situation.  It gave the Germans an additional weapon for interrogation of prisoners.  I told him that I could not do what he wanted me to do.  He then had a photographer brought in who did a frontal mug and profile with numbers.  This, I was told, was for the Gestapo.  The interrogator’s last words to me were that he felt very sorry for me.  He really did not think that I was an underground bandit, but I had been very foolish and had not helped him at all.

I went back to my room thinking or really feeling kind of, “So, this is how it is all going to end,” and being afraid only that I would not act like a big boy when they tortured me.  I had been well indoctrinated with the idea that if you revealed anything at all other than your name, rank, and serial number, they would never let you out of the interrogation center.  Apparently, those interrogation centers existed only for the sake of the occasional blabbermouth who would give them one small piece of a puzzle which they could fit into a larger puzzle where it would mesh with the gleanings from other blabbermouths.  Anyhow, they would have no further use for me because I would not tell them anything.  I could always say that I had met the enemy and “my head was bloody but unbowed” – except that it wasn’t even bloody.  It was cold and it was sweaty, but it was not at all bloody.

After an eternity, which may have been only fifteen minutes, there was a knock at the door.  A German NCO with a smile on his face said, “Lt. Winograd we are sending a movement of prisoners today to a Red Cross camp and would like you to be in command of the group.”  He told me how many hundreds of officers and NCOs would be involved.  I agreed to do it.  He explained also that, looking as I did, I could not properly command men.  I needed a shave.  Would I like to use his razor and soap?  I agreed to do that, too.  So he brought me a razor, soap, and a brush, and while I was shaving, he explained that I would have to do something else to guarantee the comfort of our men.  According to the articles of war, you are not allowed to force a prisoner to give his consent or parole, meaning you cannot force a prisoner to give his word that he will not attempt escape.  I would have to violate the entire civilized world’s conception of POW life and give parole for several hundred prisoners.  If did not?  If I refused?  Then winter, shminter-they would remove the shoes and belts of all the men on the train!  But supposing I gave parole for these men and one of them escaped?  Oh, in that case the Germans would shoot me.  Seemed like an air-tight plan!  I love to see all the ends dovetail neatly.

But look.  When you have been expecting the Gestapo to take you off somewhere to a torture chamber, a minor violation of an international covenant is insignificant.  I agreed.  He also explained that the German people were extremely sensitive people.  Well, who didn’t know that?  He meant that they were sensitive about their homes being bombed, so there was to be no laughter, no frivolity, no singing in the presence of German civilians.  If there were, there might be an attack on the prisoners by the civilians, and I would be responsible for that, too.  Looked like a good setup for me to lose weight.  I agreed, of course.  Then I was taken to a large room, and all of the prisoners were brought in, including a few members of my own crew who looked at me with awe and wonders as though it were my bar mitzvah.  You know the look: Lenny is going to make a speech!

Beschnitten

I explained the conditions of the trip.  We were going to a Red Cross center for war prisoners where we would receive new clothing and the other toilet articles and supplies we would require for our new life.  Then I had them arrange themselves into a military formation, and I marched the group to the train from the building.  I have no idea how far we went but Jeez that was fun!  So another peculiarity of being a Jew in a German POW camp was that the only time in my three years of active duty in the Armed Forces of the USA that I ever commanded a marching formation of any size or of any kind whatsoever was at that prison interrogation rogation center in Nazi Germany where it was either a reward for being a brave or an impressive soldier or, an attempt at harassment so that I should not enjoy the train ride like everyone else.

At the Red Cross place – Wetzlar, I think it was – the commanding officer explained that we would get the things we needed.  He suggested that we all watch the maps for an American crossing of the Rhine River any day now at a certain point.  He informed us that there would be “mass for the mackerel munchers at 6:30 and services for the other league at 8 o’clock.”  We would have some papers to fill out for the Red Cross.  I realized that the Red Cross had nothing to do with these papers when the uniformed German filling out my information sheet insisted that I had a “birth mark or scar” which was beschnitten – cut off.  This, he explained, was because I was circumcised.  That was my identifying birthmark or scar.

From Wetzlar we went to Nuremberg.  It was at Nuremberg that we were finally home.  They had been telling us that, “For you the war is over.”  They told us that again.  As prisoners, now that the war was over for us, we slept in cellars and in barns, and once I awoke at night to find a large rat sitting on my face, staring at me.  Now we were safely registered as prisoners, and the food was just enough to keep one barely alive.  Men fell into the latrines and lacked the strength to pull themselves out of the fecal slime.  For them the war really was over.  A most appropriate way to go.  We were home.  We were safe from the civilians who tried to grab us in Vienna when my own bomber group attacked the city just as we reached a Red Cross soup kitchen.  There was not enough to eat, but Nuremberg was something to be proud of.  After all, it was the only major bombing target that could be reached by both the entire 15th Air Force based in Italy and the entire 8th Air Force based in England.  We were bombed all day by the Americans and all night by the British.  But they were not bombing our prison.  They were bombing other things such as rail junctions.

A Moment Embedded in Stars

In the midst of this confusion, one night the British sent the whole damned Royal Air Force to bomb, and they dropped flares right on the camp, which meant to us experienced air men that we were the target for tonight.  Actually they had dropped the flares so their bombardiers (bomb-aimers, they called them) would not hit us, but would hit the rail junction about a mile away.  We did not know that though, and so we thought that we were it.  I prayed for my mother, my father, my sister, and my brother as was my custom.  I sensed that I must not be selfish or God would ignore me altogether.  And I lay in that filth on my belly on the floor of the barracks and told God that if He could get me out of that mess I would dedicate my life to Him.  That was when I decided to become a rabbi.  Seriously, that was it.  I joke a lot, especially in anxiety-laden situations, but I am serious about this moment and the rabbinate.

Finally, the day came that we marched out of Nuremberg because the American infantry was getting too close.  On the first or second day of our long march, we were attacked by American P-47 dive bombers.  Einhorn had his leg ripped open, and I never saw him again.  Our next camp was Moosburg, which we reached after marching mostly in the rain for something like 125 kilometers (eighty-five miles), sleeping at night in the open or on farms or in bitterly cold churches.  When no one else would have us the churches always would let us in out of the rain.  The Germans, during this march, were neither mean nor cruel.  They were kind and helpful.  Can you handle that last sentence?  We must have looked horrible.  Old ladies carried buckets of water for us and brought us food.  We were everywhere throughout the countryside.  A hundred thousand of us.  Finally, I arrived at the desk of the British prisoner whose job was to fill out a new informational form on me.  All of the old records had been lost.  We found them a couple of weeks later.  This British prisoner asked me again the same weary questions I had answered so many times before.  I answered them again.

I did not want to give my parents’ address, as I always feared that they might be blackmailed by German agents in the United States.  Still, I did give the address of my parents because, after all, there was no way to write home without addressing the postcards.  But when I told this man that I was a Jew, he said that he would not write that down because he had been a prisoner for five years and had seen too many Jews disappear.

We were now only twelve miles from Dachau, where the Germans had been known to separate Jews from the other military prisoners.  I answered that I would not lie about my Jewishness.  He suggested that he write down Protestant for my religion.  I refused.  He told me that I was signing my own death warrant.  I told him that I had not come halfway around the world to lie about my religion; that was what the war was all about, and if I did what he asked and we won the war, I would still be the loser.  He wrote it down and told me that he was sorry for me.  I know that he meant that.  I felt his pain.  I didn’t smile either.  I was out of the habit.

A nun in Philadelphia has written, “Hope is a moment embedded in stars that shine when your courage is gone.”  A few weeks later we were liberated.

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Here are some images of MACR 12066, which covers the loss of B-24H 41-28911.

Information about the mission, technical information about the aircraft, and information about the plane’s crew appear below.

As mentioned by Rabbi Winograd, two crew members escaped capture.  One was S/Sgt. Carl B. Rudisill, an aerial gunner.  Having returned to Allied lines by February 8, here is his report – based on then-available information – about the status of his fellow crew members. 

Here is an English-language translation of the “Report on Capture of Members of Enemy Air Forces” form, which is typical of Luftgaukommando Reports.  This report covers the capture of Lieutenant Winograd… 

…while this report covers the capture of S/Sgt. Gerald Einhorn, who was serving as ball turret gunner.  Note that Sgt. Einhorn was captured the day be bailed out – January 31 – while Lt. Winograd was captured on February 2.

This document, dated 13 February, pertains to the transportation of several Allied POWs to Oberursel, including six members of the Andrus crew.  Notable in the list is an entry for South African serviceman Lieutenant Peter Krueger (207053), named in Rabbi Winograd’s account as “Paul Kreuger”. 

And, the final crew roster of 41-28911, generated by German investigators after identification and correlation of the captured airmen.  Notably and understandably absent are the names of S/Sgt. Carl B. Robert Rudisill and F/O Edward J. Derham.  They “got away”…

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Biographical and genealogical information about Gerald Einhorn and Leonard Winograd follows below:

Einhorn, Gerald, T/Sgt., 32784824, Ball-Turret Gunner, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Originally member of 493rd BG (8th Air Force)
POW Camp unknown
Born in Romania, 7/18/22; Died 2/5/83
Mrs. Gertrude (“Gittel”) (Yaskransky) Einhorn (wife) [6/24/24-6/5/05], 577 E. 98th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel and Mathilda Einhorn (parents) (presumably remained in Rumania during war; eventual fate unknown)
Married 1/25/43
Postwar, owned a hardware store in Brooklyn
Died 2/5/83
Buried at New Montefiore Cemetery, Farmingdale, N.Y.
American Jews in World War II – 301

Winograd, Leonard, 1 Lt., 0-712977, Navigator, Air Medal, 3 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart
POW at Stalag 7A (Moosburg, Germany)
Mr. Emil Winograd (father), 299 Jackson St., Rochester, Pa.
Casualty List (Liberated POW) 6/7/45
American Jews in World War II – 560

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Coincidence upon coincidence:  There was another Leonard Winograd who served in the Army Air Force in World War Two. 

He was an aerial navigator. 

He served on B-24s in the 15th Air Force.

His aircraft was lost on a combat mission. 

He, and his entire crew, survived the war.

This “other” Leonard Winograd, who hailed from Laburnum Crescent, in Rochester, New York, was the son of Morris Winograd, and the brother of Pvt. Solomon Winograd. 

His aircraft, B-24J 42-51382 of the 758th Bomb Squadron, 459th Bomb Group, piloted by 2 Lt. Lionel L. Lowry, Jr., failed to return from a mission to Linz, Austria on February 25, 1945, the plane’s loss being covered in MACR 12360.  Though I do not know the details, I would assume that the men returned to their squadron with the aid of Yugoslav partisans.  

A brief article about Lt. Winograd from the Rochester Times Union of  April 18, 1945, appears below, followed by the crew list.

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Postwar: Once Lieutenant Winograd, now Rabbi Winograd.  (Portrait from Rabies is Jewish Priests)

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References

Books

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Winograd, Leonard, “Double Jeopardy: What an American Army Officer, a Jew, Remembers of Prison Life in Germany,” American Jewish Archives, V 28, N 1, p. 3-17

Winograd, Leonard, Rabies is Jewish Priests – And Other Zeydeh Myses, Leonard Winograd, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990

Gerald Einhorn

Mention of Gerald Einhorn serving in 493rd Bomb Group (at American Air Museum website)

Robert Andrus

Robert Andrus’ Account of loss of B-24H 41-28911 (at 376th BG Website)

Robert Andrus Crew Members

Crew Photo – North Africa, in front of B-24J 42-50960 (Mary Ellen) (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photos from collection of aerial gunner Robert D. Reutsch (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – Wearing uniforms in front of building (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – In front of B-24H 42-95285 (#22Red Ryder) (at 376th BG website)

Crew Photo – In front of B-24H 42-51183 (#27Bad Penny) (at 376th BG website)

Crewmen – Donald H. Boulineau, Donald H., Leonard Winograd, and Robert J. Cartier (at 376th BG Website)

A PDF transcript of Rabbi Winograd’s story is available here.

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Lieutenant (JG) Eugene V. Erskine – May 19, 1945

Navy Lieutenant (JG) Eugene V. Erskine was the co-pilot of PB4Y-1 Liberator of Patrol Squadron VP-104, commanded by Lieutenant Richard S. Jameson, which was lost in the Pacific Theater – specifically, during a patrol mission to the South China Sea – on May 19, 1945.  Though his obituary – below – appeared in the Times on July 20, his name never appeared in Casualty Lists published in either June or July. 

Navy Bomber Pilot Killed In the Pacific on May 19

The image below shows Eugene Erskine as a student at Johns Hopkins University.

Lieut. (j.g.) Eugene V. Erskine of the Navy, a pilot with Bombing Squadron 104, was killed in action in the Pacific theatre on May 19, the Navy Department has informed his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Max Erskine, of 2173 East Twenty-Third Street, Brooklyn.  He was 24 years old and a native of New York.

He held a B.A. degree from Johns Hopkins University.  He enlisted on July 4, 1942, and received his wings in 1943.  His father is a dress manufacturer.  Besides his parents, he leaves a brother, Sgt. Robert Erskine, now with the Ninth Army in Germany.

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The document below (from Fold3.com), from VP-104’s War Diary for May of 1945, covers – in a brief paragraph – the loss of Lt. Jameson’s PB4Y.  There is no specific information about the cause of the plane’s loss, albeit it was not attributable to combat. 

The crew (their towns and cities of residence taken from the 1946 book Combat Connected Naval Casualties, World War II, by States. 1946. U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard) consisted of the following:

Lieut. Richard Scott Jameson – Boston, Massachusetts
Lieut. (JG) Eugene V. Erskine – New York
Ens. David Winton Lanquist – Duluth, Minnesota
AMM3C James Walter Garrison – Ravenna, Texas
AOM3C Charles Jay Arnett – Sioux City, Iowa
ARM3C Roger Henry Skews – Waukgean, Illinois
ARM2C William Hamilton Ridge – Bloomington, Indiana (also Florida?)
ARM3C Donald Grover Fanelli – Atco, New Jersey
AMM3C Willard Sydenham Dodsworth – Franklin, Il.
AMM2C George Thomas Schoenwalder, Jr. – Johnstown, Pa.
AMM3C Louis Franklin Morris – Tuscaloosa, Alabama

The names of the crew are commemorated at the Tablets of the Missing at the Manila American Cemetery, in the Philippines.

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The two maps below, generated from (ahh, where else?!…) Google maps, show the position where PB4Y-1 38890 was lost: The South China Sea, approximately 100 miles east-southeast of Pratas Island.

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The image below is a larger-scale map of the above area, showing the position of the Liberator’s loss relative to uninhabited Pratas Island.  There is little to show except for water – and – more water.

Some other Jewish military casualties on Saturday, May 19, 1945, include…

Killed in Action
– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Beitch, Morris, Pvt., 37647567, Purple Heart (Killed at Okinawa)
United States Army, 77th Infantry Division, 307th Infantry Regiment
St. Louis, Mo.
Chesed Shel Emeth Jewish Cemetery, St. Louis, Mo.
American Jews in World War II – 207

Kalish, Norbert, 2 Lt., 0-41915, Purple Heart (Killed at Okinawa)
United States Marine Corps, 6th Marine Division, 22nd Marine Regiment, 1st Battalion, B Company
Mr. Julius Kalish (father), 301 West 15th St., Linden, N.J.
Born 11/5/22
Casualty List 5/13/45
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Iselin, N.J.
American Jews in World War II – 240

Stein, Robert, HA 1C (Hospital Apprentice), 9071256, Purple Heart (Killed at Okinawa)
United States Navy
Mr. Hyman Stein (father), 6413 Bay Parkway / 325 East 21st St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
1926
Casualty List 7/10/45
Cemetery Location Unknown
American Jews in World War II – 454

Died Non-Battle

Silverstein, Marvin M., Pvt., 32982076
United States Army Air Force, 1562nd Army Air Force Base Unit
Mrs. Belle E. Silverstein (mother), 1460 Grand Concourse, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1926
MACR Name index – No number on Index Card

Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot A, Row 9, Grave 105
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Prisoner of War

Zack, Milton E., 2 Lt., 0-707368, Navigator-Bombardier
United States Army Air Force, 11th Air Force, 28th Bomb Group, 77th Bomb Squadron
Hakodate POW Camp (Babai Machi), Hokkaido, Japan
Mrs. Pearl Zack (wife), 50 Harlem St., Dorchester, Ma.
Born 8/21/20; Died 12/13/06
MACR 14472; Aircraft: B-25J 43-36140, Pilot – 2 Lt. Raymond B. Lewis, 6 crewmen – 3 survivors
Casualty List 6/29/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Milton Zack’s moving story – of his training as an Aviation Cadet, service as a Navigator / Bombardier, being shot down, survival as a POW of the Japanese, liberation, and eventually his postwar life – is available under the appropriate title “Milt’s Military Memoirs“.

Milton’s B-25, piloted by 2 Lt. Raymond B. Lewis, was one of three B-25J Mitchell bombers of the 77th Bomb Squadron of the 11th Air Force’s 28th Bomb Group, which were lost during a mission to Cape Minami on Shimushu Island (the second northernmost island of the Kuril Islands) on May 19, 1945.

The other two aircraft were B-25J 43-36152 (MACR 14471), piloted by 1 Lt. John F. Mitchell, from which there were no survivors, and 43-36134 (MACR 14473), piloted by 2 Lt. Harold V. Beever, which landed at Petropavlovsk, Russia, with the plane’s crew of six surviving uninjured. 

Though Lt. Lewis’ entire crew survived the plane’s crash-landing and were captured, only Lieutenant Zack, flight engineer Cpl. Robert L. Trant, and aerial gunner Cpl. Walter Bradley survived the war.  As reported by the Japanese, Lt. Lewis, co-pilot F/O Edward N.F. Burrows, and radio operator Cpl. William E. Bradley lost their lives when the ship on which they were being transported to mainland Japan (the “Tenryo Maru”) was torpedoed and sunk on May 29, 1945.   

The image below shows Milton in the bombardier’s compartment of a B-25 Mitchell during training in the United States. 

The image below, at the website of the Center for Research: Allied POWs Under the Japanese (created by the late Roger Mansell) shows Milton and his fellow crewmen in happier times. 

Front row:  Lt. Zack, Lt. Lewis, and F/O Burrows. 
Rear row: Corporals Bailey, Trant, and Bradley

Lt. Lewis and F/O Burrows are also seen in this photo.

Paralleling Milton’s story, Walter Bailey’s account of his military (and postwar) experiences – transcribed from audiotape – is also available at the Center for Research: Allied POWs Under the Japanese website, under the appropriate title Walter Bailey: B-25 Crewman – Zack crewman.  Walter’s story is very detailed, profoundly moving, and quite explicit about the physical and emotional nature of capture by – and captivity under – the Japanese in the Second World war.

A summary of the story of B-25J 43-36140 and her crew is also available at Pacific Wrecks.

And, another Incident:
Safely parachuting after a bombing mission to Japan

Polansky, Harry H., 1 Lt., 0-686687, USAAF, Bombardier-Navigator, Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart
20th Air Force, 40th Bomb Group, 45th Bomb Squadron
Parachuted with crew over Iwo Jima, after mission to Hamamatsu
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Bessie Polansky (parents), 1203 North Fulton Ave., Baltimore, Md.
Born 1921
B-29 # 271, Pilot – Major Donald M. Roberts, 12 crewmen – all survived (No MACR Index Card)
http://www.40thbombgroup.org/45th.pdf
http://www.40thbombgroup.org/memories/Memories59.pd
American Jews in World War II – 143

Reference

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: Second Lieutenant Richard H. Davis – October 18, 1944

Lieutenant Richard H. Davis, from Belle Harbor, New York, was the subject of several news items during his military service.  Three such items appeared in The Wave (Rockaway Beach) on July 22, 1943, and May 18 and August 24, 1944, and covered his military training and deployment to England. 

On April 12, 1945 the sad news item covering Lt. Davis’ death – during an operational mission over Europe on October 18, 1944 – appeared on The Wave’s front page.  This announcement was accompanied by a photograph of the Lieutenant standing before a B-24 Liberator bomber. 

The article (found and accessed via Thomas M. Tryniski’s fantastic FultonHistory.com website) is presented below.

____________________

Lt. Richard H. Davis Killed In Action

Lieutenant Richard H. Davis, 20-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Davis of 156 Beach 134th Street, who was reported missing October 18, 1944, was killed in action on that date in the European Theatre of Operations, his parents were notified by the War Department last week.

Lieutenant Davis was a navigator on a Liberator B-24 bomber with the 8th Air Force.  He enlisted in the Army Air Corps in 1942 and was called in February, 1943.  He received his training at Selman Field, Louisiana, and few to England in July, 1944, and attended combat training school in North Ireland.  While there he underwent a period of intensive training in high altitude bombing procedures used in the European Theatre of Operations.

Lieutenant Davis was the holder of the Air Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters.

He was a graduate of Public School 114 and of Far Rockaway High School, class of 1942.  Before enlisting in the service, he was active in Boy Scout Troop 112 and in the Beth-El Players Guild, having appeared in “It Can’t Happen Here,” “Out of the Frying Pan,” and “Our Town.”

Before enlisting, Lieutenant Davis was a Government Civil Service employee in Manhattan.

The B-24 serving as the backdrop in the photograph appears, based on the shape of the forward fuselage and bombardier’s window, to have been a modified “D” version of the Liberator, with a Consolidated A-6 tail turret – installed by the Army Air Corps Oklahoma Modification Center – replacing the conventional D-version’s bombardier “greenhouse”.  Given that such planes were assigned to the 8th Air Force’s 479th Anti-Submarine Group, the image probably was taken after Lt. Davis’ arrival in England, while he and his crew were undergoing additional training in that country.

By way of example…  The image below (Army Air Force Photograph 76493AC / A11897) showing a 479th ASG aircrew (Lt. Hill’s crew) and their B-24D was taken at Saint Eval, England, in 1943. 

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A month after the article in The Wave, on May 12, 1945, The New York Times carried an obituary for Lt. Davis.  The portrait of Lt. Davis was taken when he was an Aviation Cadet.   

Bombing Plane Navigator Lost in Europe Last Fall

Lieut. Richard H. Davis, navigator of a Liberator bomber and holder of the Air Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters, who was reported missing last Oct. 18, was killed on that date in the European theatre, according to word received by his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Davis of 156 Beach 134th Street, Belle Harbor, Queens.

Lieutenant Davis, who was 20 years old, entered the Army Air Forces in February, 1943.  He was attached to the Eighth Air Force.

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Nearly a year after the mission of October 18, 1944, The Wave – on October 25, 1945 – carried mention of a memorial tribute held in Lt. Davis honor at Temple Beth El, on Friday evening, October 19, 1944. 

Another year – October 20, 1946 – and Lt. Davis’ was mentioned in the “In Memoriam” section of the New York Times obituary page.

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Lt. Davis was and his crew were assigned to the 68th Bomb Squadron of the 44th Bomb Group, otherwise known as the “Flying Eight-Balls”. 

The following two images are from the Missing Air Crew Report (#10140) covering the loss of Lt. Davis and his crew in B-24H Liberator 42-50381 (WQ * K), piloted by 1 Lt. Julian H. Dayball.  As described in detail in Will Lundy’s 44th Bomb Group Roll of Honor and Casualties, during a mission to chemical works at Leverkusen, Germany, there was apparently a mid-air collision between WQ * K, and B-24H 41-28944 (NB * D, “Flying Ginny“) of the 67th Bomb Squadron, which was piloted by 1 Lt. Michael Bakalo.  This occurred over Belgium in severe weather, while their formation was returning to the 44th’s base at Shipdham, England. 

The planes crashed 1 kilometer from Petegen, Dienze.  Of the 21 men aboard the two aircraft there emerged two survivors – waist gunners S/Sgt. George J. Encimer and S/Sgt. Cecil L. Scott – who were both seriously injured after parachuting from Flying Ginny.

Richard Davis is buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, St. Louis, Mo. (Section 82, Collective Grave 114-115.)  Other crew members buried at the same site include Lt. Dayball; right waist gunner, Sgt. Couvillion; tail gunner, Sgt. Shea; flight engineer, Sgt. Fink; nose gunner, Sgt. Steinke, and radio operator, Sgt. Sicard.  The image below – from FindAGrave contributor “Remo” (Bobby Jean “Remo” Remelius) – shows their collective grave marker.   

Lieutenant Davis was awarded the Air Medal and two Oak Leak Clusters. 

His name never appeared in the postwar publication American Jews in World War Two

____________________

Some other Jewish military casualties on Wednesday, October 18, 1944, include…

Killed in Action
– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Herman, Bernard L., 2 Lt., 0-817213, Co-Pilot, Purple Heart
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin C. and Molly Herman (parents), 7301 Park Heights Ave., Baltimore, Md.
Place of burial unknown
Baltimore Sun 2/6/45

American Jews in World War II – 140

Stern
, Jerome J., T/Sgt., 16105797, Radio Operator, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster, Purple Heart

Mrs. Celia Stern (mother), 1656 47th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Place of burial unknown
Casualty List 2/6/45

American Jews in World War II – 455

Lieutenant Herman and T/Sgt. Stern, members of the 67th Bomb Squadron, 44th Bomb Group, 8th Air Force, were crewmen on “Flying Ginny”, the loss of which is covered in MACR #15241. 

Witkin
, Leonard, 2 Lt., 0-701359, Navigator, Purple Heart, Ten Missions

United States Army Air Force, 8th Air Force, 44th Bomb Group, 68th Bomb Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob and Sylvia S. Witkin (parents), 2851 Baxter Ave., New York, N.Y. / 980 Simpson St., Bronx, N.Y.
Born 9/2/21
MACR 9654, B-24J 42-50596, “Flak Magnet”, “WQ * O”, Pilot – 1 Lt. Edward C. Lehnhausen, 9 crewmen – no survivors
Wellwood Cemetery, East Farmingdale, N.Y.
American Jews in World War II – 474

Wasserman
, Gerald M., 2 Lt., 0-2060421, Navigator, Purple Heart, Four Missions

United States Army Air Force, 8th Air Force, 390th Bomb Group, 568th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Ruth W. Wasserman (wife), 1020 E. 7th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Samuel Wasserman (father), c/o Ferber, 732 N. 26th St., Allentown, Pa.
MACR 9484, B-17G 43-38189, “Powerful Katrinka / Bugs Bunny”, “CC * M”, Pilot – 2 Lt. Donald T. Drugan, 9 crewmen – 4 survivors, Luftgaukommando Report KU 3131
Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, St. Louis, Mo. – Section 84, Grave 235-239 (Buried 10/16/50)
American Jews in World War II – 465

Fiegelman, Joseph, PFC, 33603325, Purple Heart, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster
United States Army, 90th Infantry Division, 358th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel and Dora Fiegleman (parents), Lawrence and Louis (brothers), 520 S. Washington Ave., Scranton, Pa.
Dalton Jewish Cemetery, Dalton, Pa.
American Jews in World War II – 520

Gordon
, Oscar, Pvt., 31406940, Purple Heart

United States Army, 85th Infantry Division, 359th Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Sarah Gordon (mother), Bridgeport, Ct.
Florence American Cemetery, Florence, Italy – Plot D, Row 10, Grave 19
American Jews in World War II – 64

Marcus
, Herbert, Pvt., 32802905, Purple Heart

United States Army, 35th Infantry Division, 320th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Abraham Marcus (father), 4701 12th Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England – Plot F, Row 7, Grave 102
Casualty List 11/28/44
American Jews in World War II – 387

Diskant
, Isaac, Pvt. (Died at Silute)

16th Lithuanian Rifle Division
Mr. Moshe Diskant (father)
Born 1922
Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division – 293

Freedman
, Israel, Pvt., 4038716

England, Pioneer Corps
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis and Rachel Freedman (parents), 15 Mayland St., Stepney, London, E1, England
Born 1914
East Ham (Marlow Road) Jewish Cemetery, Essex, England – Block U, Grave 21
The Jewish Chronicle 10/29/44
We Will Remember Them – Volume I – 086

Gruzd
, David, Sgt. (Died at Silute)

16th Lithuanian Rifle Division
Mr. Gutman Gruzd (father), Pvt. Chaim Gruzd (brother)
Born 1915
Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division – 294

Hurwitz
, Samuel Moses, Sgt., D/26248, Distinguished Conduct Medal, Military Medal

Canada, Royal Canadian Armoured Corps, Canadian Grenadier Guards, 22nd Armoured Regiment, No. 3 Squadron
Captured 10/18/44; Died of wounds 10/20/44
Mr. and Mrs. Harry and Bella Hurwitz (parents); Archie, David, Esther, George, Harry, Ian, and Max (brothers and sisters), 6093 Park Ave., Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Born Lachine, Quebec, Canada, 1/28/19
Bergen-op-Zoom Canadian War Cemetery, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands – 9,F,1
The Jewish Chronicle 1/12/45, 6/29/45
Canadian Jews in World War II – Volume I – 46, 52
Canadian Jews in World War II – Volume II – 34

Kolsberg
, Mieczyslaw, Cpl., Poland, Mazowieckie, Otwock, Otwock Hospital

9th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Karol Kolsberg (father)
Born 1904
Andriolli Street Cemetery, Otwock, Mazowieckie, Poland
Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Army in World War II – Volume I – 38

Lobel
, Alois, Pvt., B/1196 (Died in France, at Dunkirk)

Czechoslovakia, 1st Armoured Brigade
Born Czechoslovakia, Rajec, okres Diein; 5/23/21
La Targette British Cemetery, Neuville-St, Vaast, Pas de Calais, France – M,13
http://www.army.cz/acr/vuapraha/db/index.php
Zide v Ceskoslovenskem Vojsku na Zapade (Jews in the Czechoslovak Army in the West) – 246

Shamis
, Monia, Lt. (Died at Priekule, Latvia)

16th Lithuanian Rifle Division
Mr. Shmuel Shamis (father)
Born 1912
Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division – 304

Wounded in Action

Dienstman, Samuel, Pvt., 33778251, Purple Heart (Mediterranean Theater)
(Captured on January 27, 1944, and escaped)
Mr. Raphael and Anne Dienstman (parents); c/o Morris Dienstman, 404 W. Rittenhouse St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Pvt. Benjamin Dienstman and Morris Dienstman (brothers), 1533 Devereaux St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born Pa., 1924
The Jewish Exponent 1/12/45
Philadelphia Inquirer 1/7/44
Philadelphia Record 1/7/44, 2/29/44
Philadelphia Bulletin 1/8/45
American Jews in World War Two – 517

This photograph of Samuel Dienstman appeared in The Philadelphia Bulletin on January 8, 1945. 

Prisoners of War (Infantry)

Nadelman, Jack W., Sgt., 32822644, Purple Heart, 1 Oak Leaf Cluster
United States Army, 30th Infantry Division, 119th Infantry Regiment
(Also wounded ~ 9/22/44)
POW at Stalag 6G (Bonn)
Mr. and Mrs. Charles and Mary (Feber) Nadelman (parents), 58 E. 1st St., New York, N.Y.
Born N.Y., 1/6/26
Casualty Lists 11/22/44, 4/1/45, 7/6/45
American Jews in World War II – 398

Peters
, Abraham, Pvt., 42087543, Purple Heart

United States Army, 30th Infantry Division, 119th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 2B (Hammerstein)
Mrs. Doris F. Peters (wife), 1664 Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Casualty Lists 6/6/45, 6/15/45
American Jews in World War II – 405

Strauss
, Arthur, PFC, 32648586

United States Army, 1st Infantry Division, 18th Infantry Regiment
POW at Stalag 2B (Hammerstein)
Mrs. Klara Adler (sister), 140 Vermilyea Ave., New York, N.Y.
Casualty List 6/18/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Prisoner of War (Aviator)

Love, Harry Wilson, 2 Lt., 0-777006, Bombardier (On fourth mission)
United States Army Air Force, 8th Air Force, 390th Bomb Group, 568th Bomb Squadron
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Edgar Wilson and Fannie (Genov) Love (parents), 1717 Parkview Ave. / 1590 E. 172nd St., Bronx, N.Y.
Born Bronx, N.Y.; 10/18/23; Died March 27, 2016
MACR 9484, B-17G 43-38189, “Powerful Katrinka / Bugs Bunny”, “CC * M”, Pilot – 2 Lt. Donald T. Drugan, 9 crewmen – 4 survivors, Luftgaukommando Report KU 3131
Casualty List 3/7/45
American Jews in World War II – Not Listed

Second Lieutenant Harry W. Love was one of the four survivors of Lt. Donald Drugan’s B-17.  In 1985, his account of his singular (…an understament…) experience was published in Volume II of the 390th Bomb Group Anthology

His story is presented below.

Birthday “Blow Out”
by Harry W. Love
Bombardier, 568th Bomb Squadron

My story begins like so many other bomber crews… at 0400 hours 18 October 1944.

As per schedule, the crews are awakened; the quick wash-up; off to the mess hall for the usual chow-down; back to barracks for completion of dress, storing of personal papers and finally, off to the briefing room.  As rhetoric will have it, this is basically the routine for any bomber crew in the 8th Air Force, flying out of England.

My story, however, departs from the traditional version espoused by so many others on 18 October 1944…  It was my 21st birthday.  My attitude, no different from any other 21 year old; I was happy, had a great crew and festivities were planned for that evening when we returned from the bombing mission.

At the briefing, we received our instructions.  Our mission was to Koblenz, Germany.  (Considerably less difficult or dangerous we thought than Berlin, Regensburg, Augsburg, or so many others.) During the briefing session, the members of the crew contemplated no unusually heavy problems.  At the completion of the general briefing, the pilots, navigators and bombardiers parted ways for individual briefings.  We then were driven to our assigned aircraft.

The plane we originally had been assigned to was the Silver Meteor.  It was, however, taken out of service for this particular mission because of heavy damage it sustained two days prior, on a mission to Cologne.  Therefore, we were reassigned to a brand new B-17G.  It was a truly magnificent looking craft as we approached it that morning.

Inspection of armament loading procedures (which was my responsibility as Bombardier) was conducted and before too long, it was takeoff time.  Reflecting back I feel a few words are deemed necessary regarding my Pilot, Donald Druggan.  He was a masterful, highly prestigious, military man and competent in all aspects of his assigned field.  Our Co-Pilot, John Mohn, was very astute, tolerant and somewhat more pacific than Donald Druggan.  Our Navigator, Gerald Wasserman, a Brooklyn boy, was very dedicated to his job and an asset to our crew.

Take off was uneventful.  The weather was clear (although dark at the time of departure).  We found our assigned positions at the prescribed altitude.  Not too long thereafter, the British Coast was behind us.

The order to “check your guns, and fire your guns” was given.  The response traditionally heard was, “All guns firing properly and in order.”

We approached the coast of Europe at approximately 0830 hours.  Our target Koblenz was still an hour and a half away.  We encountered no enemy fighters en route, and the flak was light.

The bomb run over the target was considered very successful.  Upon making our turn off the bomb run (after release of bombs), we then headed in a northwesterly direction to meet up with the balance of the Wing which could be seen some 15-20 miles away.  At this time, it was quite apparent that we were some 5 or 6 minutes behind schedule in our rendezvous with the Wing for our trip back to England.  This necessitated our lead crew to change course some degrees further to the north which brought us over a portion of the Ruhr Valley.  On approaching this particular area, some 5 or 10 miles from our rendezvous, we began to pick up massive concentrations of flak fire.  One of the first bursts came within 100 yards of the front of our plane.  This was followed by 5 or 6 more immediately, thereafter, each one closer than the preceding one.  It seemed that we were well tracked down below by the antiaircraft crews.  At this time, I announced to the crew that the bursts were directly in line…  the Pilot, in accord, confirmed my communication.

Some 2 or 3 seconds later, we received a hit in the nose of the plane directly above the chin turret leaving a hole some 15-20 inches in circumference.  I immediately back tracked away from my chin gun position and took up a station to the right (which was the cheek gun).  The cyclonic rush of air that came through was impossible to control.  I recall vividly the Navigator stating over the intercom, “Nobody will know how close the Bombardier came to buying it…  the bursts of flak came through within inches of his right leg.”

The antiaircraft gunners on the ground weren’t finished tracking our plane, for at that instant we received a direct hit in one engine (starboard side) with shocking impact.  Massive vibrations developed and fumes and smoke filled the plane.  The pilot, without hesitation, pulled out of formation, and attempted to put out the flames within that particular engine by sideslipping the plane.

Upon looking at the right wing, it was obvious that the damage thereto, was extensive.  The entire right wing was oscillating up and down some 20-30 degrees.  On seeing this, I assisted the Navigator Gerald Wasserman in putting on his chest pack.  As Bombardier, I always wore my backpack throughout the entire mission.

I called to the Pilot in the customary technique…  “Bombardier to Pilot, do you have any instructions?” He replied, “Bombardier, I hear you.” Looking back at the wing again I could clearly see the oscillation increasing.  The Engineer, Sgt.  Parker, dropped down from his position to our station with the Navigator between us.  I instructed the Engineer to open the escape hatch located directly in front of him.  He complied immediately.  I again called to the Pilot asking if there were any further instructions regarding possible bail out.  The Pilot, once again replied, “Bombardier, I hear you,” but no instructions followed.

Looking out at the wing again (which was oscillating even more), it was obvious to me that the wing could not stay on much longer.  At this point, firmly believing the alarm bell and intercom were no longer operating, I directed the Engineer to bail out.  He (Parker) looked up to the Pilot for some expression of guidance…  he did not receive any.  He then looked back at me and the Navigator who was directly in front of me.  At this critical point (with little or no time for conversation), a mandated determination had to be directed and carried out.  The Engineer would have to bail out of the plane first, the Navigator second and then myself.  I, in a loud tone (after removing my oxygen mask), ordered the Engineer to bail out… again he hesitated.  I then began to physically push the Navigator in that direction stating, “We have to go, the wing is coming off.” The Navigator looked at me with quite an acceptable (and understandable) look of doubt, and shook his head.  At that instance, the wing came off!

It is apparent that with one of the wings off of a B-17, it will not fly.  Our plane began to plummet down in a spiraling, leafy fashion to earth.  At this point, I would assume we were in the neighborhood of 20-22,000 feet.  Quite instantaneously, all within the craft were seemingly welded to their specific positions.  I was flung against the starboard cheek gun slamming my neck against it in a rigid fashion, unable to move a muscle due to the powerful centrifugal force exerted during the spiraling effect.  At this moment, I vividly recall thinking of one thing, and one thing only…  “What will Mom say or feel when she hears about me being killed in action?” There was no question or doubt in my mind that I was to meet “my maker” in a matter of moments.  There was no possible chance for anyone to successfully escape this situation.

Approximately two or three seconds later, there erupted a tremendous, all-encompassing explosive force, I felt my entire body weight being lifted by an unknown force.  I was literally catapulted through the air, head first and out the front plexiglass nose of the aircraft.  The plane had exploded.  The gas tanks (I am assuming), from the other wing or in the body of the craft, had been ignited by the flak we took.  Luckily I did not black out.  I was alert and fully cognizant of the entire situation.  I knew instantly that I was free from the aircraft.  I had the foresight, however, not to pull the rip cord immediately.  As I began to fall to earth, I could clearly see burning debris from our aircraft.  Far to the left, a chute opened; shortly thereafter on my right, another chute; and then a few seconds later, still another chute opened.  This chute (the latter), perhaps opened too soon, and as fate would have it, part of the burning debris struck his chute as it opened.  Which crew member it was, I could not identify.  I held my rip cord with a firm grasp for what seemed to be hours, but I’m sure it was only a second or two before making a move.  I saw clear areas around me.  I then pulled the cord and to my utter surprise, I felt no jerk, as anticipated.  My most prevalent thought at this time was, “The parachute must have been torn from my back when I was blown from the front of the plane.” I looked up and there it was … blossoming beautifully above me.  Perhaps the reason for not feeling the impact of the chute opening, can be attributed to the mental trauma I had so recently experienced, i.e., being blown out of the aircraft.  My thought at this time, “My God, I’m going to be safe.  I’m floating down to earth.”

At this juncture, everything began to go black, or more accurately, red.  I now realized I could not see.  I placed my hands over my eyes, wiped them and realized I did not come away from this situation unscathed completely.  I was bleeding profusely from head wounds received when I was blown through the front plexiglass of the craft.  I also realized that my shoes that were tied to my parachute harness were not there.  They had been snapped, or torn, off when I was blown out of the aircraft.

On descending, I could see a forest area and remembered some of the instructions we received concerning means of generating control over the parachute.  I was able to tug at the harness, thus controlling the direction of the chute so that my landing would be between some very large fir trees.  I landed on a 45-degree slope of a hill.  Not being proficient in parachute landings, I came down extremely hard, striking both legs in a rather awkward position, that later would prove to give me untold pain and discomfort.  The impact of landing so hard and abruptly, caused one of my legs to collapse on the base of my spine.

Reflecting back to military orders and instructions, concealment of the chute after landing was of the utmost concern.  I picked the chute up as quick as I possibly could and dug and scratched a large hole in a leafy area where I buried it under branches, twigs, etc.  I began moving in a westerly direction but soon, thereafter, collapsed.  The injuries I had sustained were not as minor as I initially thought.  Both of my ankles were swollen out of proportion, and the bleeding from my skull wounds were now in a hemorrhaging state.  I took stock of what medications I had and treated myself with sulpher for my scalp wounds and bandaged them the best I could.  I then constructed make-shift crutches and again attempted to move on.  As my arduous journey continued, I further realized I was experiencing pain at the base of my neck.  Later I found that my 2nd Lieutenant bar was bent completely in half.  Something most assuredly had struck it with a great impacting force to have caused it to bend.  The object which had struck the metal bar so precisely, had to have been metal; the 2nd Lieutenant bar undoubtedly saved my life.  I sustained a massive hematoma on my neck where the bar had originally been affixed to my collar.

I placed the time of my landing at 1230 hours.  I continued to move on through the afternoon.  I traveled for several hours in a westerly direction as best I could, and rested part of the night in a thickly wooded area.  I did not know for sure how many of the crew got out, but I had seen two chutes at a distance.  Later I was informed that a fourth airman had in fact gotten out.  There were only four survivors from our B-17G.

The following day, during the early hours after dawn, determined and still limping, I continued to move on.  The wooded area that concealed me began to echo with a terrifying sound; that of track dogs.  The area where I had descended was flooded with civilian and Wehrmacht troops.

I was finally detected and captured by the aforementioned group of people, at approximately 0900 hours on the 19th of October 1944.  I was taken to a town (to the best of my recollection, Oberursel) where my imprisonment began.

Some weeks later, during which time I spent a week of interrogation procedures in Dusseldorf, I had the heartwarming pleasure of seeing three of the enlisted members of my crew.  The Tail Gunner, Conwell, related to me that he was blown out of the tail section.  Raymond Hutt was blown out of the Waist Gunner’s compartment and the Radio Operator, Ledford, was blown out of the top section of the craft’s radio compartment.  I was further informed that the Ball Gunner, Stevens, had not emerged from the ball nor did he have his chest pack on at the time the wing disengaged itself from the aircraft.  Out of a crew of nine, only four survived.

After spending about eight months in prison camps, Stalag Luft 3, Sagan and Moosburg, I was liberated by Patton’s Third Army on 29th April 1945 and returned home in May of that year.

October 18th, Nineteen Hundred Forty-Four, was my day of infamy, it too was my Birthday .  .  .  my day of Rebirth.

This Is My Story.

Control Tower Log for 18 October 1944 shows one aircraft MIA

0715: All mission a/c off except 325T-hydraulics out – ship stuck off edge of r/w and field will be u/s (Ed: unserviceable) for landing a/c until at least 1030 – possibly later.

0930: 831-C aborted with #3 feathered, prop run away.  Will circle until 325 is cleared.

1130: 325 off r/w.  Ship 007-M (Lewis) lost a piece of 325 plexiglass nose on t/o.  No damage to 007.

1131: 831 C landed. (Ellis)

1542: All a/c returned except 189-M (Drugan)

J.H. Stafford 1 Lt. S.C.

____________________

On August 9, 2002, Harry spoke about his wartime experiences – and other aspects of life – in an interview available at the New York State Military Museum.  

When Harry passed away on March 27, 2016, he was the last survivor of the crew of Powerful Katrinka / Bugs Bunny. 

____________________

A photograph of Donald Drugan’s crew (contributed by FindAGrave contributor Patootie), taken during training in the United States, is shown below.  The names of the crew members are listed beneath the image. 

Rear (L – R)

Sgt. Jurl T. Parker (Flight Engineer – KIA)
Tamaha, Ok.
Ardennes American Cemetery, Neupre, Belgium – Plot D, Row 3, Grave 5

Sgt. Willis T. Ledford (Radio Operator – survived – Died July 3, 1996)
Cleveland, Ga.
Hoschton City Cemetery, Hoschton, Ga.

Sgt. Raymond L. Hutt (Waist Gunner – survived – Died Nov. 19, 2008)
Tecumseh, Ne.
Tecumseh Cemetery, Tecumseh, Ne.

Sgt. Robert Stevens (Ball Turret Gunner – KIA)
Long Beach, Ca.
Ardennes American Cemetery, Neupre, Belgium – Plot A, Row 38, Grave 47

Kaiser (Waist Gunner – did not fly on mission of October 18)

Sgt. Cleon Conwell (Tail Gunner – survived – Died April 6, 2006)
Monticello, In.
Buffalo Cemetery, Buffalo, In.

Front (L – R)

2 Lt. Donald Terrance Drugan (Pilot – KIA)
Portland, Or.
Ardennes American Cemetery, Neupre, Belgium – Plot D, Row 1, Grave 47

2 Lt. Jonathan V. Mohn (Co-Pilot – KIA)
Portland, Or.
Ardennes American Cemetery, Neupre, Belgium – Plot D, Row 5, Grave 30

2 Lt. Gerald M. Wasserman (Navigator- KIA)
Brooklyn, N.Y.
Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, St. Louis, Mo.

2 Lt. Harry Wilson Love (Bombardier – survived – Died March 27, 2016)
Bronx, N.Y.

____________________

These are pages from the Missing Air Crew Report (#9484) for Powerful Katrinka / Bugs Bunny, covering the crew list and technical details about the plane.

An account of the plane’s loss follows.

____________________

This image of Harry, from Ancestry.com, shows him as an Aviation Cadet…

…while this image, also from Ancestry.com, is a photograph of Harry taken by the Germans shortly after his capture.  The picture is attached to his German Prisoner of War “Personalkarte”. 

  ____________________

Postwar reports on the loss of the bomber, by Harry Love and tail gunner Cleon Conwell, are seen below. 

____________________

____________________

This image (WW II Army Air Force Photo 3200 / A45511) is captioned, “Lt. Maurice A. Bonomo, Bombardier, 333 W. 86th St., New York City, 18 daylight missions; holds Air Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters”.  The picture gives an excellent representative view of the the bombardier’s position in a B-17 Flying Fortress (specifically, a B-17G Flying Fortress). 

Lt. Bonomo, viewed as if looking forward from the navigator’s position, is facing the bombardier’s control panel.  Above the control panel can be seen a nose-mounted “flexible” port M-2 Browning 50 Caliber machine gun, with its ammunition feed chute hanging to the right.  (Another flexible M-2 Browning, out of view of the photograph, is mounted within the right side of the nose.)  The remote control for the aircraft’s Bendix chin turret (housing two M-2 Brownings) is visible – in its stowed position – to the right of Lt. Bonomo.  In front of Lt. Bonomo is the bombardier’s plexiglass nose “bubble”, which – despite variations in design among different versions of the B-17 – is so visually characteristic of the Flying Fortress.

Given that Lt. Bonomo is not (!) wearing his oxygen mask, and is directly touching the control panel without (!) gloves (neither of which would be advisable at altitude…) this is almost certainly a “posed” photograph, taken while the B-17 was on the ground.

Though the date of this photograph is unknown, what is known is that Lt. Bonomo, a member of the 401st Bomb Squadron, 91st Bomb Group, became a prisoner of war on July 20, 1944, during a mission to Leipzig, Germany.  On that date, he was a member of 1 Lt. Arthur F. Hultin’s crew in B-17G 42-102509, which was lost due to anti-aircraft fire.  Fortunately, all 10 crewmen survived as POWs.  The plane’s loss is covered in MACR 7274 and Luftgaukommando Report 2560, the latter document being unusually detailed in its description of the plane.

Maurice (serial number 0-754720), the husband of Janet A. Bonomo, of 333 West 86th Street, in New York, was imprisoned in North Compound 2 of Stalag Luft I, in Barth, Germany. 

His name appeared in Casualty Lists published on December 13, 1944, and (as a liberated POW) on June 15, 1945, and can be found on page 281 of American Jews in World War Two.

References

Books

Blue, Allan, The B-24 Liberator – A Pictorial History, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, N.Y., 1975

Davis, Larry, B-24 Liberator in Action (Aircraft No. 80), Squadron / Signal Publications, Inc., Carrollton, Tx., 1987

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Kulka, Erich, Zide Československém Vojsku na Západé, Naše Vojsko, Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1992

Leivers, Dorothy (Editing and Revisions), Road to Victory – Jewish Soldiers of the 16th Lithuanian Division, 1941-1945, Avotaynu, Bergenfield, N.J., 2009

Lundy, Will, 44th Bomb Group Roll of Honor and Casualties, Green Harbor Publications, 1987, 2004

Meirtchak, Benjamin, Jewish Military Casualties in the Polish Armies in World War II: II – Jewish Military Casualties in September 1939 Campaign – Jewish Military Casualties in The Polish Armed Forces in Exile, World Federation of Jewish Fighters Partisans and Camp Inmates: Association of Jewish War Veterans of the Polish Armies in Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1995

Richard, Wilbert H.; Perry, Richard H.; Robinson, William J., The 390th Bomb Group Anthology – Volume II, 390th Memorial Museum Foundation, Inc., Tuscon, Az., 1985

Canadian Jews in World War II – Part I: Decorations, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948.

 Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948

Websites

44th Bomb Group

General Index: http://www.greenharbor.com/index.html

October, 1944: http://www.greenharbor.com/ROHPDF/ROHSO44.pdf

Pacific Pesach: The Guam Haggadah – III

     One wonders what happened to the 2,700-odd Jewish servicemen after the evening of March 28, 1945 (15 Nisan 5705). 

     Certainly, the overwhelming majority survived the war and returned to the United States after Japan’s surrender. 

     Some – with a probability verging on certainty – did not. 

     Case in point, the image below:  An Honor Roll, created by Chaplain Cedarbaum, bearing the names of sixty-five Jewish airmen who were casualties while serving in the 20th Air Force.  Based on this and other information, he planned to eventually create a book about Jewish aviators who served in the 20th Air Force as crewmen in B-29 Superfortress bombers.  His plans never came to fruition, at least as he expected…

20th AF Jewish Aviator Honor Roll (Chaplain Cederbaum)     …The above photograph was received by Noah and Sadie G. Finkelstein, whose son, 2 Lt. Joseph Harold Finkelstein, a Co-Pilot in the 6th Bomb Squadron of the 29th Bomb Group, was killed during a mission to Tachiarai Airfield, Kyushu, Japan, on May 5, 1945. (1)  (His name appears under the heading “314th Wing.”)  The image inspired them to create their Memorial Album covering Jewish airmen who were casualties – killed or missing – in the 20th Air Force.  As recorded by Noah in the book’s forward, “I decided to attempt to obtain biographies of all those whose names appeared on the plaque, and to publish an album to their memories.”

     So far as I know, Noah and Sadie’s book is almost unique, for it is one of the very few monographs giving detailed biographies of American Jewish military casualties – in the context of a specific time frame, activity, and theater of war – that appeared during the twentieth century.   

      Some Jewish periodicals, such as the South African Jewish Times, and, the Jewish Criterion (Pittsburgh, Pa.) allocated special sections at the war’s end for comprehensive photographic and biographical coverage of Jewish military casualties, but this material was never translated into books.  On the opposite end of the spectrum, Volume Two of the 1947 publication American Jews in World War II, by I. Kaufman, presents state-by-state lists of the names of American Jewish servicemen who received awards for military service, or, who were casualties (wounded, injured, or killed; the book does not specifically identify men who were POWs).  The entries in this volume are limited to a man’s name, rank, city of residence, and military awards, being derived from information recorded on National Jewish Welfare Board – Bureau of War Records Master Index Cards.

memorial-album-01     Cover page of the Finkelstein’s Memorial Album, “Dedicated to the Boys of the 20th Air Force”.

memorial-album-05     A stylized aircraft flies towards a burning sun: A brief introductory poem by Sadie Finkelstein on page 4.  memorial-album-15     Sadie composed other poetry for her book.  This comprised three other four-line poems with allegoric illustrations (the one shown above is from page 16), and, two full-length poems in Yiddish.  The latter include English translations by Paul Monroe, and, Ruth Kaswan. 

     Notice that this powerful image – probably in pen and ink – is signed by “M.D.”, who also created the preceding illustration.  Unfortunately, “M.D.’s” full name is not given in the text.

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   Unknown at the time to Chaplain Cedarbaum, among the sixty-five men whose names appear on the plaque, seven would survive as Prisoners of War (POWs).  Their names, dates of capture, and crew positions follow:

Einstein, Alvin J., S/Sgt. – June 22, 1945 – Gunner (Central)
Ginsberg, Abraham Saul, Sgt.  – May 29, 1945 – Gunner (Right)
Greenwald, Mortimer L., Sgt. – August 2, 1945 – Gunner
Leavitt, Harold F., S/Sgt. – May 26, 1945 – Radar Operator
Moritz, Wallace, 2 Lt. – May 29, 1945 – Navigator
Siegel, LeRoy, Sgt. – April 7, 1945 – Gunner
Unterman, Melvin, Capt. – May 26, 1945 – Bombardier

     Among those who did not survive, the majority were never found, due to the combination of physical circumstances and / or locations in which their aircraft were lost.  Their names of most are commemorated at the Tablets of the Missing at the Honolulu Memorial, in Honolulu, Hawaii.

     Of the sixty five, the Finkelsteins’ book presents biographies and photographs for twenty-four.  They are:

Bauch, Selig H., Sgt. – Radar Operator
Berkowitz, Martin, S/Sgt. – Radio Operator
Binger, Marvin Louis, Sgt. – Gunner (Right)
Broome, Richard Jerome, Sgt. – Flight Engineer
Cohen, Abe, PFC (Not actually an air crewman; died while trying to rescue a comrade from a burning building.)
Cohen, Monroe Melvin, F/O – Navigator
Feinberg, Robert Alvin, 2 Lt. – Radar Operator
Finkelstein, Joseph Harold, 2 Lt. (Their son) Co-Pilot
Greenspan, Marvin Jerome, Cpl. – Gunner (Right)
(Shot down over Japan on 4/15/45 (his first mission); captured immediately; murdered shortly after under direction and instigation of Second Lieutenant Ippei Tamura.)
Harris, Benjamin L., 2 Lt. – Flight Engineer
Hoenig, Sidney, F/O – Bombardier
Klein, Donald Philip, S/Sgt. – Radar Operator
Kronick, Archer S. (Asher Simcha bar Yoel), Sgt. – Gunner (Central)
Levinson, Gerald M., 2 Lt. – Flight Engineer
Levy, Jules, 2 Lt. – Navigator
Orkin, Milton, 2 Lt. – Navigator
Porjesz, Kurt, S/Sgt. – Radio Operator
Powsner, Maurice J., F/O – Bombardier
Schneider, Leon, 2 Lt. – Bombardier
Sheshansky, Harold, S/Sgt. – Gunner (Central)
Siegel, Norman Sydney, 2 Lt. – Navigator
Stein, Monroe, 1 Lt. – Bombardier / Navigator
Tomberg, Leon,1 Lt. – Bombardier
Weiner, Herbert Coften, 2 Lt. (Actually, a casualty in Australia with the 5th Air Force)

     The sixty-five names alluded to above represent a portion of Jewish servicemen who were casualties in the 20th Air Force.  The total number stands substantially higher and includes six other POWs.  The names and dates of capture of the latter are:

Levine, Joseph, 1 Lt. – December 14, 1944 – Bombardier
Levine, Stanley H., 2 Lt. – August 8, 1945 – Flight Engineer
Newman, Irving Sidney, 2 Lt. – August 20, 1944 – Navigator
Paul, Chester E., 1 Lt. – December 14, 1944 – Co-Pilot
Presender, Robert Eugene, 1 Lt. – March 2, 1945 – Navigator
Sellz, Norman, S/Sgt. – April 7, 1945 – Radar Operator (Sole survivor of his crew)

     Many more names could be presented, but this list will suffice, for now. 

     Perhaps better to let one man symbolically speak for all – for those few who returned; for the many who did not:  Irving S. Newman, at a reunion of the 468th Bomb Group in September of 1995.

irving-s-newman-september-15-1995_edited-1      From Dorchester, Massachusetts, Irving was a navigator, and one of three survivors (along with the flight engineer and radar operator) of Calamity Sue, a 468th Bomb Group B-29 piloted by Captain Ornell J. Stauffer.  Calamity Sue was lost on a mission to Yawata, Japan, on August 20, 1944 (the crew’s second combat mission) when a nearby B-29, the Gertrude C, was deliberately rammed by a Japanese fighter, debris from the disintegrating B-29 striking and mortally damaging Stauffer’s aircraft.

     A portrait of the Stauffer crew, from Irving Newman’s collection, is show below.   The photograph was taken at Smoky Hill Army Air Field (later Schilling Air Force Base), Salina, Kansas, in February of 1944.  The men stand before “Eager Beaver”, a B-17F Flying Fortress.  (Photo c/o Irving Newman)

     They men in the image are:

Front row, left to right:

Pilot – Captain Ornell J. Stauffer (KIA)
Co-Pilot – Lieutenant Jimmie Wine (bailed out, later killed)
Navigator – Second Lieutenant Irving S. Newman (survived – POW)
Bombardier – Second Lieutenant Ben R. Bloom (KIA)
Flight Engineer – Second Lieutenant Austin C. Shott (survived – POW)

Rear row, left to right:

S/Sgt. James A. O’Brien – Gunner (Left Blister) (KIA)
T/Sgt. Walter A. Dansby – Radio Operator (Survived – POW)
S/Sgt. Clinton A. Martin – Gunner (Central Fire Control) (KIA)
Sgt. Raymond J. Keelan – Radar Operator (KIA)
S/Sgt. Michael J. Karlovich – Gunner (Right Blister) (KIA)
T/Sgt. Robert W. Bonner – Gunner (Tail) (KIA)

Missing Air Crew Report 9685, covering the loss of Captain Stauffer’s B-29 (42-6368 – Calamity Sue), includes the following postwar statement by T/Sgt. Dansby:

      “I will tell the story as far as I how it, however, I don’t know much.  We were flying at 26,000 ft. and suddenly something hit us.  I was knocked out of my seat on my back.  I met Capt. Dean, a pilot on TDY.  He tells me the following:  We were in the No. 4 spot in a four plane formation and a Jap fighter approached us.  He misjudged our speed and before he could pull away he rammed our formation leader, Lt. Col. Clinkscales.  The wreckage from the plane hit the plane I was in and knocked off our tail assembly.  That was the Capts.’ story.  After having been hit, we went into a spin.  The co-pilot [Wine] let the landing gear down and he and the engineer [Shott] opened the nose wheel door.  The engineer bailed out at once at I would guess 20,000 ft.  The navigator [Newman] who was squatting between the pilot [Stauffer] & co-pilot with his maps had to run back & put his parachute on.  He bailed out about 14,000 ft. and after I got back on my feet I bailed out at about 3,000 ft.  Although I was last out, I saw the navigator coming down after I hit the ground.  I finally met up with him and they captured us about ten minutes later.  After staying in solitary confinement for 4 months I was sent to a prison camp.  Later I met up with the rest of the men who was shot down the same day.  Col. Carmichael, Richard, was among the men who were brought in later, but, except for the three of my crew who I knew bailed out, I never saw any of the remaining eight of the crew.  I heard a report after the war was over that six parachutes were seen to come from my plane – but none of them ever showed up at the prison, which was named Omori Prison between Tokyo & Yokohama, camp where I was.  It seems that this camp was the staging area for B-29 airmen.  Except for a few scattered around in China & other parts of Japan B-29 prisoners were brought to this camp.  At war’s end there was almost 150 B-29 men in this camp, but none of our missing crewmen ever showed up.”

______________________________

     Like many veterans of the Second World War, Irving wrote an account of his experiences.  Intended for his family, and in a symbolic sense simply for the historical record – to make a historical record of the past for its own sake – Irving actually began this process very soon after being liberated from captivity in Omori, Japan, in 1945.  As he recounted, “This book was started in September of 1945, aboard the USS Yarmouth.  She was a little out of her accustomed territory.  Boston to Nova Scotia was her regular run, but here she was come to take me home from my Pacific war.  I wrote laboriously, telling who, what, when and where, but never why; that always escaped me.”

     The book is arranged chronologically and encompasses such topics as Irving’s pre-war life in the Boston area, his training as a bombardier, and navigator; his relationships with other airmen, particularly his crew members and fellow POWs; being Jewish in the military in the 1940s (though not a central thrust of the book); the loss of Calamity Sue, his capture, and the realities of interrogation by the Japanese; life as a prisoner of war. 

     Given the immediacy of its composition, the book is a work of great clarity, detail, directness, and near-complete frankness.  As Irving himself implied, there is genuinely and intentionally very little “why” in the book in the way of discussion of deeper religious or philosophical issues.   

     Which, perhaps, when pondering the names above – why some men returned,; why some did not – is just as well. 

     We all have to answer such questions in our own way. 

     Here is a brief answer from Irving, speaking for his father, Harry Newman:

____________________

     (1) Their B-29, serial 42-93953 and commanded by 1 Lt. Ralph E. Miller, was shot down by Petty Officer Toru Kurita of the 343rd Kokutai, who was flying a N1K2-J Shiden Kai fighter plane.  The crew consisted of:

Pilot: 1 Lt. Ralph E. Miller (Eaton Rapids, Mi.)
Co-Pilot
: 2 Lt. Joseph H. Finkelstein (Los Angeles, Ca.)
Navigator:
2 Lt. Charles C. Winder (Salt Lake City, Ut.)
Bombardier
: 1 Lt. Clyde M. Roush (Neosho Rapids, Ks.)

Flight Engineer: T/Sgt. William H. Chapman (Calhoun, Ga.)
Radar Operator: 2 Lt. Jack M. Berry (Atlanta, Ga.)
Radio Operator
: Sgt. Jack V. Dengler (Danville, Il. / Salt Lake City, Ut.)
Gunner (Central)
: Sgt. Albert R. Howard (Cullman, Ak.)

Gunner (Left): Pvt. Merlin R. Calvin (Saint Louis, Mo.)
Gunner (Right)
: Cpl. Clark B. Bassett, Jr. (Son of Clark B. and Bonnie W. Bassett, of 202 Niagara St., North Tonawanda, N.Y.)

Gunner (Tail): Cpl. Irving A. Corliss (Somersworth, N.H.)

     “No eventual”, because five men did survive the aircraft’s shoot-down, by parachuting.  They were 2 Lt. Berry, Sgt. Dengler, Cpl. Corliss, and Pvt. Calvin.  All captured uninjured, they were murdered – while prisoners of war – on June 20, 1945.  The fifth crewman, Cpl. Clark B. Bassett, Jr., severely wounded and unconscious, was parachuted from the plane by those men, and died of his wounds not long after landing.  He is the only member of this crew who has a place of burial.  (Acacia Cemetery, North Tonawanda, N.Y.)

New York State Digital library
New York State Digital library

Corporal Clark B. Bassett, Jr., from the North Tonawanda Evening News of December 27, 1948.

      The plane’s other crewmen – Miller, Finkelstein, Winder, Roush, Chapman, and Howard – were presumably still aboard the aircraft when it crashed at sea, at a place still – and probably forever – unknown.

Ralph E Miller Crew 1Rear row: Roush, Winder, 1 Lt. Paul E. Remmetter (Killed in Action April 16, 1945; replaced by Lt. Miller), Finkelstein, Berry
Front row: Howard?, Dengler, Chapman or Corliss, Bassett

Ralph E Miller Crew 2Rear row, left to right:  Roush, Winder, Remmetter, Finkelstein, Berry
Front row, left to right: Howard, Dengler, Chapman, Bassett, Corliss, Calvin

The Long Way Home: An Australian Jewish POW in World War One – II

     This post presents the transcript of the post-escape interview of Private Thomas by R.C. Swaine, which occurred in London on November 28, 1917.  The image below is the “first” of the 14 such images comprising the scanned interview transcript:

thomas-henry-l-6

____________________

     The transcription follows below.  I have included maps (Google maps, that is) showing the location of places mentioned within the text.

____________________

Thomas, Henry Lamert, Private, No. 2466.  30th Battalion Australian Imperial Forces.

20th July 1916

Fleurbaix.

Wounded slightly in the left leg by shrapnel.

Private Henry Lamert Thomas, of the 30th Australians, No. 2466, states: –

I am 20 years of age.

My home address is at Toronto, Lake Macquarie, New South Wales.

southern-new-south-wales-10     New South Wales and the southeastern coast of Australia, showing the locations of Sydney and Newcastle.

toronto-and-nearby-coastal-area-australia-11     Newcastle, and the suburb of Toronto, the latter situated near Lake Macquarie.

toronto-australia-12     A closer view of Toronto.

brighton-ave-toronto-nsw-13     Toronto, in the lower left portion of the map, with Brighton Avenue, where Private Thomas’ home was located at “Te Aroha”.

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Before I joined the army I was employed as a railway clerk with the New South Wales Government Railway.

At the time of my capture I was with a party of four others in a shell hole between the first and second trenches.  We were unable to retire, as immediately we were seen in the shell hole we called down machine-gun fire.  We decided to stay in the shell hole and try to get back under cover of darkness, but about 5 or 6 o’clock in the morning of the 20th the Germans came out of the trenches and surrounded the shell hole in which we were, and we were forced to surrender.

I had been slightly wounded by shrapnel in first going over the trenches, but the wound was very slight and at the back of the left knee.

I did not previously to my capture witness any case of infraction by the enemy of the laws and usages of war.

I noticed one curious circumstance with regard to the effect that water in a drain, which ran into a shallow trench which may have formed part of the trench system of the Germans, had upon our clothing, and that is, that we having in the course of the attack waded down the drain in which the water was waist high, our clothes, when dry, began to rot and were very easily torn, from which I think it possible that something may have been turned into the water, as I do not think that ordinary water would have had that effect on our clothes.

After being captured I was brought into the German trenches, and with a party of three others taken down a communication trench on to a road, where we joined up with a party of 20 or 30 other men of the 8th Australian Brigade.  This party was then marched back to Loos, and from there to Lille, which I think we must have reached about midday.

At Loos our papers were taken from us, including our pay-books, but these were afterwards handed back to us.

____________________

fleurbax-and-lille-2     Relative locations of Fleurbaix, Lille, and Villeneuve-d’Ascq.

fleurbaix-1     A closer view of Fleurbaix.

____________________

At Lille the men who had served in any special branch were separated from the others and a couple of men from each battalion were put with them, and they were sent, I believe, to Douai.

The officers also were separated from us at Lille and put in another quarter.

Our money was changed into German money, but beyond these two instances I have nothing much to say of our stay in Lille.  The rate of exchange appeared to be about 25 francs for 20 marks, which, I understand, was the rate which the Germans imposed on occupied territory.

We were taken to a building, which, I think, was an old French prisoner, and were kept there for two days, that is, until the evening of Saturday, the 22nd July.

I had not reported that I was wounded, so was not taken to any field dressing station, nor was I detained in hospital in France or Belgium before being sent to Germany.

As soon as we got to the prison, we were served out with some soup – at least, I think they called it soup.  I should not like to say what it was made of; I should think it was made of turnips, perhaps.  About 6 o’clock that night we had another bowl of soup and half a loaf of bread.  The loaf would be rather smaller than the usual English Army loaf.  It was a round shape and cut in half.  It was the regulation war bread.

We were sent upstairs to a room in which there were some straw mattresses on the floor and on the tables.  There were not enough for all the men; some of them were lucky, and got one.  I was one of the unlucky ones who did not, but I shared a mattress with other men.  We managed this by putting two mattresses together on which two men lay lengthwise, and I slept across their feet.  We had no provision whatever made for our comfort at Lille except the straw mattresses in the room.  We were given no blankets and no means of washing except the tap in the yard, but there were no buckets or basins which we could use for washing.  I was very lucky in having a cake of “Lifeboy’ soap in my pack, which I had received in a parcel from home.  I had put this in my pack just before going over the top, and I was very glad to have it with me, as it is impossible to buy soap in Germany.

On the evening of the 22nd we were marched to the Lille railway station.  We were put into ordinary goods wagons with wooden benches across the wagon, and the doors were then closed and we were started off on our journey to Dulmen.

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dulmen-and-nearby-region-3Dulmen, Germany (highlighted), in relation to Munster, Dortmund, and Essen.

dulmen-and-nearby-cities-4A closer view of Dulmen in relation to Munster.

dulmen-5Dulmen.

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So special ration was served for the journey.  We had had while in prison the usual half load of bread each day, bowl of coffee (substitute) in the morning and another in the evening, and the same old soup.

We reached Dulmen at 6 o’clock on Monday morning, having, therefore, been 36 hours in the train.

The only food which we had on the journey was one ladleful each of thick barley soup and one cup of coffee per man.  As far as I remember, we got the soup on the German frontier.  Those who had any bread left brought it with them on the journey.  I myself was unwell and unable to eat my bread, which I gave to another man.

There was no provision whatever for lavatory accommodation in the wagons.  During the daytime, at halts on the line and in sidings, we were given the option of leaving the wagons, but at night-time we were not allowed to do so.  I was suffering from an attack of diarrhea at the time, and at night was considerably inconvenienced by the lack of accommodation, but I do not think that any of the other men were suffering in this way.  At night the wagon was locked and there were no guards in it, so we were unable to ask them to make any provision for us.

There was a lamp in each wagon with a sort of wax light in it, which we managed to light.  We were left to ourselves until about midday on Sunday, the 23rd, when two armed military guards were put into our wagon.  The door of the wagon was then slid open and the bar laid across the opening, and we were able to get some fresh air.  We had had various stops at stations and sidings and were allowed to get out of the trucks.  The military guard did not interfere with us in any way.  They allowed us to smoke.  There were no wounded men in our party; they had been sent to hospitals, and I saw nothing of the German Red Cross on the journey.

I arrived at Dulmen on the 24th July and remained there until the 4th September 1916.

I cannot say how many prisoners there were at Dulmen.  The number was continually changing.  New prisoners would come in and others were sent out with working parties.

Dulmen is a big camp.  There are three lagers.  I was in No. 3.  There were other nationalities in No. 3 lager, including British Colonial troops, French and Russians.

I was never in the hospital at this camp.  When I first got to the camp I reported “sick,” but I did not mention my wound.  The doctor saw me and gave me some medicine and told me not to eat too much.  I looked at him and was absolutely speechless and could not say a word.  He did not appear to intend his advice to be taken as a joke.  About a couple of days after I reached the camp I was all right again.

I do not know the names of the commandant or the second in command at the camp, nor those of the officers commanding the separate lagers.

The chief complaint which the prisoners had to make against officers in command of this camp was that we did not receive sufficient food.  I do not know what was the cause of this nor who was responsible for it.

At Dulman we had warm shower-baths on arrival and our clothes were fumigated.  Somehow or other (I do not know how) I managed to pick up some vermin, and on reporting this my clothes were again fumigated and I had a warm shower-bath.

We were also picked out by companies and sent about once a fortnight to have a warm shower-bath.

Dulmen is in a moorland district, with sandy soil and no vegetation except heather.  Just beyond the camp the ground is swampy, but where the camp is situated it is dry.

We were lodged in wooden huts.  I believe I am right in saying that these have double walls of wood, with wooden roofs and tarred paper on them, and wooden floors raised about a food off the ground, the huts being built on wooden piles, so that there was an air space under the flooring.  Each hut, being a large one, was divided into two divisions called “A” and “B”.  In one corner of each division of the hut was a small room, called the “N.C.O.’s Room,” which held eight men.  The other divisions held 54 oR 64 men each.

Our beds were of cocoanut matting suspended on a frame like hammocks.  They were made of a sort of wool.  We were also served with a pillow and a towel to each man and a bowl and spoon for our meals. 

Each division of the hut had a large stove in the centre.  There was a washhouse at the end of each block of huts, with a trough with taps over.  The sanitary arrangements were good.

I do not know what was done in No. 2 Camp, but in No. 1 the prisoners were employed in construction work in connection with the camp, and with ordinary camp fatigues.  In No. 3 Camp we used to be sent out about once a fortnight on camp fatigues.  We did not receive any pay for this work.  There was some mention of the men in No. 1 being paid 30 pfennigs a day, but I do not know whether this was a fact.

I was not asked to make munitions nor, so far as I know, were any of the prisoners.

We had a bread issue every day, about 4 p.m., of a tenth of a loaf.  This would be the ordinary camp loaf, which was a rather big one, but I do not know the weight of it.  The loaves issued in both Dulmen and Munster camps are of the same size.  In the morning, at six o’clock, about twice a week, we received what we used to call “sandstorm” because it was like the fine dust of the Egyptian Desert.  I believe that this was really bone dust.  We came to the conclusion that it must be this.  This was made into a sort of soup.  It was like a very thin porridge.  We got the usual old ladleful of this stuff.  Alternate days we had a ladleful of coffee or cocoa substitute.  When we had the bone dust we did not get either coffee or cocoa.  I really do not know what this stuff was unless it was bone dust.  It was not made of oatmeal or anything like it, but we thought it was a terrible mixture.  It had no smell and very little taste.  Dinner was served at 1 p.m.  This consisted chiefly of cabbage and water, or turnips and water, or mangolds and water.  It may have been hot when it was served out, but when we got it it was just warm.

Towards the end of August we occasionally got some potatoes.  Until then we had none.  The only trace we saw of potatoes up till then were pealings at the bottom of the soup.  At the end of August, just before we left the camp, potatoes were served out boiled in their jackets, four or six per man.

We made several complaints about the condition of the food, that there was not enough of it and that it was of bad quality, but only on one occasion was any notice taken of this, when sometime in August we got an additional ration of a dixey of soup, half full, for 250 men.  This would not have been sufficient to give any appreciable quantity to each of the 250 men, so we drew lots for it and out hut (8B) were the winners, so that we had enough for a ladleful per man.

At one time the men in No. 1 Camp, who were older prisoners receiving parcels and getting better soup, used to bring us over a half dixey of soup which they did not want themselves, but after this had gone on for about two weeks it was stopped.  This incident makes me think that it was not entirely due to shortage of food in Germany that we were kept on such short rations. 

The men in No 1 Camp were given much better food than we were.

At six o’clock we had another meal.  Generally this was a soup with barley or rye.  Occasionally we had a tinned black pudding.  This was in a tin about the size of a 2-lb. preserved fruit tin, and one tin was served out to ten men.  When we got the black pudding we used to have a ladleful of so-called “tea” served out to us.  I have been in Ceylon, and know what tea is there, and I do not think that the tea came from Ceylon.  It may have been the same stuff as we were able to buy afterwards, and which the Germans called “Cumberland Tea”.  It is like a tea leaf, and dry, but much bigger, and would break if held in the fingers.  It is a leaf of some sort, but I do not think a tea leaf.  Every Friday night we had one fish each – raw.  It may have been herring, but I do not think it was.  This was salted.  We had no means of cooking them in the guts, and if we wanted to eat them we had to have them raw.  If we had no opportunity of cooking them over wood fires which we were able to make when we were on fatigue, or of smoking them, then we used to eat them raw.  We occasionally got cheese.  It was funny sort of stuff, with caraway seeds in it.  It was soft and crumbly, and we dug it out with a spoon.  Its taste was that of a very strange cheese not in the best of condition, but the caraway seeds helped us to eat it.

Each Sunday and Wednesday morning we received a dessertspoonful of jam each.  It had a queer taste, and I thought it was like bad tomato.  We had no sugar, no butter, no milk, and no fruit except that we sometimes had dried fruit in the soup.

What I have said about the food might make it appear that there was plenty of it and some variety, but it was really starvation rations, and it was a common thing for men to faint on parade from general weakness, and on getting out of bed in the morning we often had a faint dizzy feeling.

I cannot say whether I myself actually lost weight (although I became very weak), as I had no opportunity of weighing myself, but I saw men who came into the camp strong and healthy-looking fading away and getting as weak as kittens.

There was a canteen in Camps Nos. 1 and 3; in fact, there were three canteens in No. 3, which was a much bigger camp than the others.  I do not know whether or not there was one in No. 2.  We were able to get tins of sardines, “Queen Alexandra” brand, from Norway, price 1 mark per tin.  These tins held about 16 very small sardines, and they also sold them in half sizes holding eight sardines.  These cost 60 pfennigs.  We could also buy what they called “honey” and jam.  That was all that we could buy in the food line.  Honey was put in cardboard boxes and was sold for 50 pfennigs for about half a pint.  The jam was the same as we had served with our rations.  Very small glass jars of this cost about 40 pfennigs.  We could also get cups of coffee at 10 pfennigs.  We were also able to get razors, knives, pencils, writing-paper, scissors, note-books, cigarettes (a packet of 10 for 20 pfennigs and a packet of 20 (J.O.B. brand) for 40 pfennigs.  We were able to buy playing cards, the German pack, in which there are no cards below the seven.

I had no parcels during the time that I was at Dulmen.  I do not know in what state parcels received there by other men arrived.

At Dulmen I was wearing my tunic, which was in good condition; my breeches, which were much torn at the knees; my puttees, which were in fair condition; and military boots.  I had no overcoat, and the only article of my equipment which I was able to keep was my water bottle.  Our tin helmets were taken from us at Dulmen and we were served out with prisoners of war caps – a sort of forage cap.  We did not get these caps, however, until nearly a month after we came to Dulmen, and as our helmets had been taken from us we had to go about bareheaded.  The German excuse was that they did not have these caps.  We were promised them as soon as the supply came in.  As we were Australians and had just come over from Egypt, this did not trouble us much.  The only clothing besides the caps which the Germans served out to us was a flannelette shirt each.  We asked for underpants and singlets, but again they told us that they had none in stock.  We received no overcoats.

The only facility we had for exercise in this camp was walking about the camp.  There were no outdoor games of any sort.  The only indoor amusement was playing cards and draughts on a board which we made ourselves, using squares of cardboard to represent the draughtsmen.  Smoking was allowed both in and out of the huts, and it was not stopped while I was in the camp.

There was no epidemic while I was in the camp.

I was never in the camp hospital.

In Lager I a religious service was held every Sunday.  I do not know what form the service took as I was never at it.  We were only given an opportunity of attending on one occasion, and then we did not wish to go.  I believe it was conducted by a Frenchman, but I do not know much about it.

I got neither letters nor parcels at Dulmen.  The system of issuing parcels seemed to me to be a good one.  The parcels were brought from the railway station to the parcels office and a list was made of the names of men to whom they were addressed.  Each parcel was numbered and a ticket was made out and a duplicate of this given to the man to whom the parcel had been sent.  He then went to the counter in the parcels office, presented his ticket and his identification ticket containing his name, regiment, number, &c.  If this tallied with the address as given on the parcel, he was handed over the parcel.  The parcel was then opened on the counter in the presence of the man to whom it had been sent.  I do not know anything about letters, but can only speak as to the parcels.  Onions were not allowed and were taken out of the parcels.  Lemonade powders were taken out and sent to the hospitals, or, at all events, it was said they were sent to the hospitals.  Paper was not allowed, nor were newspapers.  I do not know about books.

There was a library in No. 1 Camp, but whether this had been formed out of books sent in parcels or whether the books had been sent out in bulk, I do not know.

We were allowed to write one postcard per week and two letters per month.  We were not allowed to write to any relief committee asking for parcels.  On the Sunday after we got to Dulmen, that is, on the 30th July, some of us wrote to the Red Cross asking that parcels might be sent out to us, and letting them know that we were in the camp.  To the best of my belief these postcards got through.  On the following Sunday, the 6th August, the men wrote to various organisations asking for parcels, but the postcards were returned to us with a polite notification that we were not allowed to write to any relief committee asking for parcels to be sent to us. 

Apart from the question of food I have no serious complaints to make of our treatment at Dulmen.  It was very hard for us, however, to get to No. 1 Camp, where the English prisoners had food.

I do not know of any case of cruelty in this camp.  I heard rumours of ill-treatment, but saw no instances of it, and I do not know how far, if at all, the rumours were well founded so far as No. 3 Lager was concerned.  We were simply brought to the camp and left to our own devices.

There was a difference in the treatment of nationalities.  In the first place, a Russian was worse treated than those of any nationality.  If an Englishman was convicted of an offence he always received a heavier punishment than a Frenchman.  It is a well-known fact that in the camps the Frenchmen received the best jobs.  The poor Russians were worse off than the others.  They get practically no food from outside sources, which gives the Germans an ascendancy over them.  It is a serious matter for a Russian to get 14 days’ cells on bread and water, because, having had no parcels and having been living entirely on the German rations, he has not the same strength to stand this punishment as an Englishman.

Regulations were posted stating what we might not do in the camp.  I do not know that there was anything to inform us what we might do!  There was a list of offences headed “Martial Law” in German, French, Russian and English.  Nearly everything on the list was said to be punishable by death.  I do not know that attempting to escape appeared on it.  It stated in these regulations what was meant by our “superiors”.  They were officers, N.C.O.s and men of the German army appointed as our guard, and other men appointed by the Germans in charge of the prisoners.  Some of the regulations were to the effect that if you laid hands on a superior it was punishable with death.  One of the regulations is that you are bound under penalties to report any conspiracy against the superior.  There was also a punishment for taking part in the conspiracy.  We treated these regulations as more or less of a joke, as they dealt with matters which occurred every day in Germany.  As a matter of fact, I have seen acts of violence committed on sentries which were not punishable by death, and I know, of course, that men are assisted to escape and there has been no punishment for conspiracy.  The sentence in Germany depends upon the man who tries your case, except for escape, for which the usual penalty is 14 days; but although the punishment for the actual escape is 14 days’ imprisonment, they always manage to add on another seven days for some such offence as removing marks from the uniform, cutting the wires, or being in possession of a map of the country or a compass.

The principal punishment was confinement on bread and water.  I did not see any other punishment administered, except what we called “sticky” or “stilly-stand,” which consisted in keeping a man or body of men, sometimes as many as a whole company, standing to attention for a period which might be some hours in length.  This punishment might be administered for men being late on parade, absenting themselves from parade, or failing to salute an officer.  The principal cause of this punishment being administered was failure to salute the German sergeant-major (Feldwebel), who used to walk about up and down the lines expecting to be saluted, and as the English declined to do so there was always trouble for them.

Neither the American Ambassador nor any representative of his visited us at Dulmen.

I noticed no improvement while at Dulmen in the treatment of prisoners.

The huts and accommodation and the sanitary arrangements at Dulmen are considered very good for Germany.  They would be thought fair in England.  The huts were watertight, and the system was that of separate huts, and not, as in Munster, rows of buildings surrounding a square.

On the 4th September 1916 a party of 30 prisoners, al Britishers, was sent to Erkrath, a small village about 4 kilometers from Dusseldorf.  We went in ordinary 3rd-class corridor carriages, with an armed guard in the corridor.  We left Dulmen at 9 a.m. and reached Erkrath at 6 o’clock in the evening.  We had no food with us on the journey except part of our bread ration from the night before, and on arriving at Dusseldorf we asked the guard to let us have some food.  He lined us up on the platform and came down with a bucket, which we naturally thought contained food, but we afterwards found it was filled with water.  We had no trouble with civilians either on this or on any other journey which I made.  They came round out of curiosity to look at us, but did not interfere with or harm us in any way and showed no hostility to us.  On arrival at Erkrath we were taken to the working barracks, which was a small brick building built especially for us.  It was one storey high, with a wooden rook and tarred paper over it.  This was the best accommodation I saw in Germany for war prisoners.  It had a wooden floor, and was heated by a stove in the middle of the room burning coke, and was lit by electricity.  It was well built, and not at all draughty or damp.  There was a washhouse and good lavatory accommodation, but no bath.

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dusseldorf-and-nearby-cities-6Erkrath, Germany, in relation to Dusseldorf and Wuppertal.

erkrath-and-dusseldorf-7Erkrath and Dusseldorf

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We had iron bedsteads in two tiers, with straw mattresses on iron laths.  We had one sheet and two blankets, a pillow and pillowcases.  The beds were very comfortable.

We were employed at Erkrath in what is known as a Chamotte Fabrik.  This was a factory for the manufacture of chamotte, which is a mixture of clay, sand, graphite, firebrick and other substances.  The process was that the materials were ground in different machines, mixed in the proper proportions and wheeled on barrows to railway trucks.  The stuff when loaded was watered to make it moist and prevent it shaking out of the wagons.  The factory was alongside the railway line.  Our pay for this was 97 pfennigs per day.  I do not know the reason why we received this precise amount, but heard someone say there is a regulation which makes it necessary to pay a broken mark only to prisoners.  The prisoners at this factory were attached to the Munster Camp, to which I had been transferred, and I understand that this is one of the regulations of that camp.  I believe that the chamotte is used in making mouldings for ironwork.  We were not required to do any other work there.  We worked from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., with an hour for dinner and two quarter-hours for coffee during the day.  The food at Erkrath was good.  We were supplied with food by the factory proprietor, one named Frederick or Fritz Lungen.  About 6.30 in the morning we were supplied with maize mail with dried figs in it and a slice of bread.  At 9 a.m. we were given three slices of bread made into sandwiches with cheese, sausage, bacon or brawn, and coffee.  For dinner at 12 noon we had generally vegetables, sausage, or cut-up meat.  At 4 o’clock we got two slices of bread made into a sandwich with jam between.  This was better than the jam which we had had at Dulmen.  About 7.30 p.m. we had a wash, and were provided with tea, which consisted of potatoes, salad, or sometimes fish and potatoes and sometimes very thick maize meal, with occasionally a little stewed apple.  We had sugar sprinkled on this.  Previous to our going to work art this factory a commando of Frenchmen were sent, but refused to work there.  I don’t know why they refused to work, but I have heard that they did not like the look of the factory.  They were then sent back to Munster, and we were sent to Erkrath in their place.  As far as I can judge, the reason why we had such good food was to keep us in good health and fit for hard work.

We had a canteen at Erkrath where we could buy cigarettes, tobacco, pipes, knives, apples (when we first arrived, but supplies of these soon stopped), brushes, combs, looking-glasses, &c.  If we required any other articles such as cigarette lighters, scissors, books such as German grammar books or German dictionaries, we got the sentries to purchase them for us, and this had to be unbeknown to the officials.  The prices of the various articles were reasonable, and there seemed to be a good supply.  The cigarettes and tobacco were very poor.

We received letters and parcels while I was at Erkrath.  The first parcel which I received came about three weeks after I had arrived there.  This was the first parcel I had received at all since I was taken prisoner.

The food from England and abroad arrived in very good condition, with the exception of the bread from Switzerland, which at that time was sometimes mouldy.  The food which we had from England was practically all tinned stuff, with the exception of such articles as packets of “Quaker” oats, tea and cocoa, and sugar.

At Erkrath we were supplied by the Germans with a greatcoat and two pairs of underpants, and overalls for working in.  We also had boots issued to us.  These were leather boots with wooden soles, but when the winter set in and it was too cold for leather boots we had wooden clogs served out to us.  We were ordered to hand in our leather boots about the end of December 1916 or the beginning of January this year, and we were told that they were to be exchanged for winter boots.  When the winter boots were issued to us we found that they were simply wooden clogs.  In that part the wooden clog is the best thing to wear in the winter, as it is very much warmer than the leather boot.  I think, therefore, it is quite possible that the reason for exchanging the boots for clogs was the real reason.

We had no opportunities of exercise while on this working party, but on Sundays we were allowed to walk round a very small yard round the barracks.  On two occasions the whole of the prisoners went for a three or four hours’ march, accompanied by the guard.

Indoors we played cards and draughts.  I had a pack of cards sent to me in a parcel, and one of the sentries got us in some draughtsmen.  We were supplied with no games by the Germans officially.  We were allowed to smoke both indoors and outdoors at the barrack and the factory, and it was never stopped.

There was no epidemic at this camp while I was there.

There was no hospital attached to this camp.  If a man was ill, he was taken to the hospital at Dusseldorf Bilk.  Private Holmes, of the 56th Battalion A.I.F., who escaped with me from Duisberg-Meidrich, was taken ill with pleurisy.  The German doctor, whose name I do not know, saw him, and under his orders he was bandaged by the Gefreiter (corporal) and put to bed.  This was on Monday, I think.  He became very weak and had to be helped about, leaning on my shoulder.  Later on he could not move about at all.  He was in this state for three or four days.  I spoke several times to the Gefreiter about it, and begged him to send for the doctor to attend to Holmes, but nothing was done until about the Wednesday or Thursday, when the doctor came and saw him, and he was at once removed in a motor car to Dusseldorf Bilk, where he was in such a state that he had to be operated upon immediately without chloroform.  I consider that this would have been saved if the doctor had attended to him at once when I asked the Gefreiter to send for him.  This happened about three weeks after we had reached the camp, and Holmes remained in hospital until January.  I do not know the name of this doctor.  He was a civilian, rather an elderly man, and had lost part of one ear – I cannot remember which.  This doctor was the same man as I shall remember later on with regard to the incidence of a man cutting his throat at Erkrath.  When there I knew his name, but I cannot now remember it.

The Roman Catholics among our party were allowed to attend the Roman Catholic church in the village, but the others of us who were not of that religion had no religious service whatever.  We should have been allowed to attend the Catholic services had we wished.

After we first received letters and parcels at Erkrath they came regularly.  The sentry was supposed to open our parcels in our presence, but the arrangements were very slack and sometimes we opened them ourselves.  Letters had been opened at Munster and were delivered to us open.  Nothing was taken out of the parcels.  I do not know what was supposed to be prohibited.  We were not told anything as to this.  On one occasion the whole lot of us opened our parcels and took the contents away before the sentry came in and asked us is we would like to have our parcels censored.  This sentry was a very nice chap.  His name was Toni Haase, and he was a sniper belonging to the 7th/7th of the Landsturm.  It was a regulation at Munster that every tin in the parcels should be opened in the presence of the man to whom it had been sent, but our sentry did not trouble about this.  The empty tins were piled in a corner of the yard.  They were just left there, and were still there when I left.

The same regulations as at Dulmen applied to the writing of letters.

I have no complaint to make of our general treatment at Erkrath so far as the German authorities are concerned.

We were under a guard consisting of the Gefreiter, whose name was Kollok, but he was afterwards replaced by another two sentries, Haase and Heyder, also of the 7th/7th Landsturm, and they treated us very well.  There was no cruelty whatever to any of us.

The work upon which we were engaged was, however, very unhealthy.  The clay-crushing machine gave out a lot of dust, and we believed that this was the cause of Holmes’ illness.  The sieve also gave out a great deal of dust, as did also the brick-crushing machine, and I believe that this work was bad for the lungs.

We were working in the factory with German civilians and Poles – about 40 or 50 of them in all.

So far as I know, none of the prisoners besides Holmes were affected by the dust, nor do I know of any case where the civilians were made ill from this cause, but, as I said before, I consider that the work was unhealthy.

We had the same regulations at Erkrath posted in the barrack as we did at Dulmen, that is to say, the martial-law notice was posted up on the door.

The interpreter was an old soldier, No. 10101, Private James Kiltie, of the 1st Gordon Highlanders.  He was himself a prisoner of war.

While I was there no punishments were awarded.

We used to be visited by the commandant of Munster, and a cavalry captain (Rittmeister) came once a month.  We complained on one occasion to the Rittmeister that there were no baths in the barrack, and he said he would attend to it, but nothing was done.  We had no visits from the American Ambassador or the representative of any Neutral Power while at Erkrath.

While at Erkrath one of the men became insane and cut his throat.  This was Private Ward, of the Scottish Fusiliers.  He complained to the civilian doctor whom I have mentioned before of pains in the head, but the doctor simply told him to go to work.  The next day he cut his throat with a razor and wounded himself very badly.  He was taken to the hospital at Dusseldorf Bilk.  He was at Dusseldorf for some time, and then was returned to us as having been cured, he we could see that he was not right in the head, and we complained to the Gefreiter about him.  He was then removed and sent to Munster, and we heard afterwards that he had been sent away from Munster.  We did not know where, but believe that they have a special asylum camp for prisoners of war, but I do not know whether this is so.  I do not suggest that this prisoner became insane on account of his confinement, as I believe that insanity is in the family.

Our treatment throughout the time that we were at Erkrath remained the same.  There was no improvement, but, on the other hand, things did not become worse.

Our food towards the end of the time was not quite so good as at first, but this was due, no doubt, to the winter shortage.

I left Erkrath about the 10th February this year.

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munster-and-nearby-cities-8Munster, in relation to Dortmund, Dusseldorf, Essen, and Wuppertal.

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I went alone with one sentry to the prisoners’ camp at Munster, known as Munster I.  We went by train in an ordinary carriage, and the sentry treated me quite well on the way and even carried my kit for me.

The reason I was sent away was that it was thought I had not been working well.  I had determined not to do so, and had behaved in such a way as to be brought before the doctor frequently and the Fabrik Meister.  I told them that my heart was weak and I could not work properly, and as the result I was one day dismissed and told that I was being sent back to Munster.

I have no great opinion of the abilities of the German doctor.  One of our men who had never smoked until he got to Erkrath, and then had only smoked about one packet of German cigarettes, was told by the doctor that he was suffering from “smoker’s heart”.  On another occasion I was ordered to wheel a large barrow full of white clay.  As I did not much fancy the job, I went up to the Fabrik Meister and told him I had hurt my shoulder.  The doctor said that I had dislocated it, and I was excused work, and as the result of this I was never put to the work of wheeling a big barrow again.

I left Erkrath about 1 o’clock in the afternoon and reached Munster about 10 o’clock at night.  I had no food except two pieces of bread which were given me at Erkrath before I left.

Munster I. Camp is in Westphalia, and I was there from February 1917 until 4th April 1917.  The camp is on clay soil and is very muddy.  The camp buildings are built around the square, and there is no view from them of the surrounding country, but we could just see the sky.  I believe it has now been burnt down.  It was a big camp containing a large number of prisoners, the number varying from time to time, and I cannot give an idea of how many there were on an average.

I do not know the name of either the commandant or the second in command.  I know nothing about them, and I steered clear of them.  I never heard any comments passed on them by the prisoners.

The camp buildings formed one continuous building right around the square.  They were built of wood with double walls, and were one storey high with wooden roofs and tarred paper over the top.  They were raised above the ground.

The natural lighting of these buildings was very bad.  The windows faced inwards to the square, and in some parts of the buildings it was so dark that you could hardly see your way about.  The artificial lighting was electric light, but this was insufficient.  There were two lights to each hut, and each hut contained about 100 men.

We slept on beds consisting of a wooden frame with cocoanut matting on the top and suspended from the two ends of the frames.  On this we had a straw mattress, and I helped myself to one dozen blankets.  I went with another man to draw blankets at the magazine, and found that there was no one there, so I helped myself to all that I could carry.  These blankets were the same thin kind that we had at Dulmen.  I was able to stick to these blankets.  I do not remember having a pillow, but I got a towel, bowl and a spoon.

We had two stoves to each hut, burning coal.  At that time the stoves were burning day and night, and they kept the place reasonably warm.

The washing facilities were very good.  We had a trough with taps, and we were able to go twice a week to a warm shower-bath.  I have noticed that the Germans do provide good washing facilities.

The sanitary arrangements at Munster I. were not good.  There was only one latrine for the whole camp, which was not sufficient.  I do not complain of the actual arrangements, but that they were not adequate.

When I got to Munster I went before the doctor for my heart.  He sent me to bed for five days to get it right!  At the end of that time I went before him again, and he then marked me A1, which meant that I was fit as I was for hard work.  I do not know the name of the doctor, but he was no fool.

After I had been passed as A1 I was employed on ordinary camp fatigues once in five days, for which I received no payment.  I do not know of any of the prisoners being employed on any work for which they were paid.  No attempt was made to force me to make munitions.

The food was very bad.  It did not trouble me, as I was getting parcels, but I saw the mess being served out and I tasted it, and it was the kind of food that, so long as there was anything else to eat in the camp, we would not touch.  There were continued grumblings about the food provided for the men who had no parcels.

The parcels from England and abroad arrived in good condition at this camp, including the bread from Switzerland.

We were not supplied with any clothing, as we had the clothing sent out by the Red Cross, and I did not ask for any.  I had handed in the clothing supplied to me at Erkrath on leaving there.

At Munster we were given the opportunity of playing football in the camp square.  Indoors we had games from the parcels, and we were allowed to smoke indoors and outdoors, and smoking was never stopped except after “lights out”.  There was no epidemic while I was at Munster I., nor was I ever in the camp hospital.

We had religious services every Sunday, conducted by a man named Frost, who was in the Durham Light Infantry, and was formerly a schoolmaster.  He also conducted the burial services for any man who died.  This man (Frost) did everything he could for the prisoners’ comfort, including the running of the Relief Committee, seeing to the parcels, acting as librarian and taking the services; in fact, he was working himself to death looking after the prisoners.  He was a private, and was the finest prisoner I met in Germany.

The postal arrangements were that letters came to the camp, were censored, and then handed over to the prisoners.  The parcels were opened in the presence of the addressee.  Both letters and parcels arrived regularly and in good condition.  Parcels were searched for “Black Cat” cigarettes, which were taken out if found.  I do not know of anything else being prohibited.  Unmarked clothes were taken out and marked with coloured cloth.

The arrangements as to writing were those general as to all the camps.

I have no complaint to make of our general treatment.  They left us alone.  My own personal method was to avoid having anything to do with the guard, and I found then that there was no trouble, but some men are rather inclined to look for it.  I saw no cases of cruelty to British prisoners or those of any other nationality, but we saw men coming in from commandos in a wretched condition.  The men to whom I refer were British.  I do not know the names of any of them, but I spoke to some of them and they told me that they had had a bad time, and I saw some men there who had been knocked out.  I cannot remember any individual cases, but the general impression which I got was that the men had been very badly treated.

There were various nationalities at Munster I.  At first the French were better treated than the British prisoners, but after a time, on account of the alleged ill-treatment of German prisoners in France, their privileges were stopped and they were not allowed any form of amusement.  Their orchestra was disbanded, and they were not allowed to make their little articles which they were used to work at, such as souvenirs, &c.  A notice to this effect was posted up, and also another notice that any infringement of the rules would be treated with the greatest severity.

The “martial law” notice was posted here.  The regulations were exactly the same as at Dulmen.  I saw no bad effects from punishment in this camp.

On one occasion a person who was said to be an ambassador from one of the Scandinavian countries came to the camp, but he was only shown one hut that had been specially cleaned out for him, and after he had seen this he was taken out of the camp.  None of us had an opportunity of speaking to him.

The case of insanity at Erkrath was the only one I saw during my imprisonment.

I noticed no improvement in the condition of things during my detention at Munster I.  On the other hand, the treatment of the prisoners was not so good towards the end of my time there as it was at the beginning.  The French were, as I said before, worse treated and (possibly because the number of British prisoners was less) we had to work every third day instead of every fifth day, while the regulations as to parcels became very strict.  The prisoner to whom the parcel was addressed was not allowed to receive anything from it except the actual foodstuff, that is to say, the wrapped of parcels of tea and the tins in which food was packed were taken away after they had had the contents emptied out of them.  I do not know what use was made of the wrappers and tins, but they were permanently kept.  This was done at the parcels office.

I left Munster I. on the 4th April 1917, and was sent with a commando to Duisberg Meidrich.  Eight Britishers formed the party and we went in an ordinary train with two guards.  The journey was not a very long one, and we got no food on the journey, but it was no hardship to be without it as the journey was so short.  The guard treated us fairly on the train.

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duisberg-germany-9Duisberg, Germany.

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Duisberg Meidrich is a suburb of Dusiberg, in Rhineland.  The main camp, of which this working camp is a branch, is at Friedrichsfeld.  On arrivel there we were marched to the Gesselschaft fur Teerverwertnung (the Tar Distillery Company).  From there we were marched to our barracks and shown our quarters.  There was a sergeant-major (Feldwebel) in command and two privates as sentries.  They did not interfere with us in any way.  The barracks were close to the factory.  It was a good barrack, and better than that at Erkrath because it was healthier.  The building had more space in it, and was very well built of brick, with a glass roof and a concrete floor.  It was well lit with electric light except towards the end of my time there, when the roof and bulbs of the electric lamps were painted blue to prevent observation by aircraft which they seemed to be expecting.  They are in a holy terror of our aircraft coming over.  The machines did come over one night, but went on to Essen.  There was a regular panic at Duisberg Meidrich, as the people told us when we saw them the next morning, but I do not know of any bombs being dropped near us.

We had two-tier bunks with wooden laths on which we had a straw mattress, but no blankets.  We were supplied with an eiderdown cover, one sheet and a pillow and pillowcases.

The building was heated with coal stoves, of which there were about six, including four cooking stoves.

There was a good lavatory accommodation – a trough with hot and cold-water taps – and in the factory were baths which we could have once a week.

The sanitary arrangements were good.

There were about 13 British prisoners here and about 200 of various other nationalities, French, Russians and Belgians.  We kept to a separate corner of the barracks and had no dealings with the other prisoners.  We were employed in various ways in this very big factory, all in connection with tar distillery.  At first I got 1 mark a day, but I would not work satisfactorily, and I was taken off and put on to punishment work (a “straf” job), which was the best job I struck in Germany, and I stuck to this.  I did practically no work.  I had to empty seven or eight wagons of naphthaline per day, and each wagon took about seven minutes to empty.  For this work I got paid 2 marks per day.

I was not required to make munitions.

The food supplied to us was better than Munster I., but not so good as Erkrath.  We had to live on it for the first two months until our parcels began to reach us again, and we struck work three times on account of the badness and insufficiency of the food.  This improved towards the end of the time, when the new harvest was in.  Working hours were from 6 till 6.

We had coffee at 8 a.m, vegetable soup at 12, mostly turnips; coffee at 4; and soup again at 6, the same as before.  We sometimes got a piece of herring between two men, and every Sunday a little piece of meat, a spoonful of jam, and occasionally some of the same sort of cheese as we got at Dulmen, and occasionally a small piece of white cheese.  We had a 3-lb. loaf of war bread every four days.

We had a canteen where we could purchase the same things as at Erkrath, with the addition of beer substitute, wine and lemonade.  Prices were much the same as at Erkrath.

The food, in parcels from home and abroad, arrived in good condition.

Our clothing was that sent out to us from home, and we were served out with overalls.  We did not ask here for any clothing to be issued to us.

There was a yard in which we could play football on Sundays.  Indoors we had a gramophone, which we bought through the Feldwebel, and cards.  We were not allowed to smoke in the factory, but otherwise could smoke until lights out.

There was no epidemic during my stay.  If there was sickness the men were sent to the General Hospital at Duisberg.

The Frenchmen went to mass at a church in the town, but we had no religious services.

We were taken to the cinema the week before I left.  This was stated to be a weekly affair.  Occasionally we were taken for a walk under guard.  At the cinema we were shown war pictures, including pictures of the Kaiser visiting the front, firing of guns and a livery stable on fire.  We were also shown comic films.

The postal arrangements here were just the same as at Erkrath.  The parcels were opened by the sentry; the tines were taken to a store and opened when wanted in the presence of the sentry.  The tins themselves were put in a heap.  Cigarette papers were taken out of the parcels.  I had six packets of mine taken out.  There was nothing else stopped in any case except tooth-paste and insect powder.

The parcels were first censored at Friedrichsfeld.

We were allowed to write the same as at the other camps.

The general treatment at this camp was fair.  If you were late in turning out from the barracks, you were “helped along” with the butt of a rifle.  I never myself saw a British prisoner hit, but have seen Frenchmen and Russians struck, and I know of one case (Private R.B.S. Morris, of the London Rifle Brigade) who was struck with the butt for knocking off work too early.  I do not know the name or regiment of the man who struck him.  It was before my time.

We were informed by a sentry that the Feldwebel’s orders were to leave the British and Frenchmen alone, but to put the Russians through it.  They acted past their instructions, as the Frenchmen were ill-treated.  I have not seen any men permanently injured, but I have seen them knocked out.

The martial-law notice was not posted up here, but a notice was sent from Friedrichsfeld, signed by, I think, Hauptmann Fischer, notifying that the death penalty would be imposed under the “laws of military treachery” if prisoners of war were caught destroying property to prevent economic working.  Morris, of the L.R.B., who was in charge of the British prisoners, was ordered to sign this, but he refused to do so.  Another document was then sent in practically the same terms, but again he refused to sign it.  None of the prisoners, accordingly, signed the notice.

The acts considered offences were the same as at the camps.  The punishments  were 11 days’ cells in the barracks for smoking in the factory, 14 days for trying to escape, seven days for having a map or compass, and seven days for cutting marks out of our clothes.  The cases were tried at Friedrischsfeld and the men imprisoned at Duisberg.

We had no representative of any Neutral Power to visit us here.  The treatment was the same the whole time of my stay.  We had one sentry, who made things a bit warm for us, but when he left we went back to the old conditions.

I am told that at Friedrichsfeld this working camp is considered one of the best in Germany, and that it has been a good camp from the beginning of the war.  At one time it was even better than at present.

I escaped from Dusiberg Meidrich on the 27th October 1917.

I do not myself know anything of an Irish brigade, nor was I ever asked to join one.  I heard, however, from some of the older men who were taken prisoners during the retreat from Mons of visits to the camps by Sir Roger Casement, who had asked for volunteers to join the Irish Rebellion.  I do not, and do not think I ever did, know the names of the men who told me this.  I gathered that Casement had a rather rough reception at some of the camps.

I was never asked to assume German nationality.

I have met Frenchmen who told me that they had been kept at work behind the German lines in France, but I did not talk to them much and know nothing of this except that they told me that there were Britishers with them.

Our parcels were received satisfactorily during the last few months.

I did not come across any British prisoners of war who either assumed German nationality or otherwise gave evidence of German sympathies.

I was working with civilians, and heard their conversation and spoke to them, and from what I heard and they told me, and from my own observation when passing through Dusseldorf and Duisberg, Ruhrort and Erkrath, I have come to the conclusion that things are in a very bad way in Germany.  At Duisberg Meidrich civilians told me that the weekly ration was one 3-lb. loaf of war bread, 250 grammes of meat and 7 lbs. of potatoes.  Soap is unprocurable, boots scarce, expensive and made of compressed paper soles.  Clothing is very expensive.  The shops in the towns through which I passed had very little display in the windows.  People seemed fed up with the war and spoke strongly of the Crown Prince.  They say he is “verruckt,” that is “dotty”.

I did not see many animals, but the working horses seemed in fair condition.

As I was a prisoner of war for 15 months and was moved from camp to camp at intervals of a few months, it is very difficult for me to give a comparative statement of the rations issued to us on dates at intervals of six months, and I can add little to what I have already stated with regard to the food.  It was not reduced in quantity during my detention in any particular camp, but as supplies were more abundant after the harvest, we benefited a little from increased rations at those times.

During my detention there was a change for the worse in the type and class of men employed on guard work at the camps.  The younger and fittest men were weeded out and sent up to the front, and the guard when I left Duisberg consisted of men physically unfit and old men.  The old men were civilians in civilian clothes, with belt and bayonet and rifle.  They were between the ages of 50 and 60, and one man who could speak English told me he was 55.

I heard nothing from the guards as to local disturbances over food questions, nor did I hear anything of preventive arrest.  I knew that Liebknecht was imprisoned, as reports of his imprisonment were in the papers before I went to Germany, but I did not hear it mentioned in the camps.

I did not hear anything from the guards concerning aged men training in the depot battalions.

__________

I examined the witness, Private Henry Lamert Thomas, yesterday and to-day at 53, Coleman Street, E.C.2.

I consider that this young man is an exceedingly good witness. He had made his statement of the conditions in the two camps and two working camps in which he was detained in great detail, and impressed me with his desire that the information which he was giving and any expressions of his opinion should be accurate and scrupulously fair.

While he has not refrained from expressing his opinion upon any fact of which he was absolutely certain, he has, while mentioning one or two circumstances which he evidently regarded with suspicion, declined to state the inferences which he has drawn from them, as he said he did not think it fair to make statements of what his suspicions were when he had nothing but his own deductions upon which to found them, and these deductions might be wrong.

I think there is no question but that the statements contained an impartial and unprejudiced account of his experiences.  He has shown the greatest willingness to do all that he possibly can to assist the Committee by giving information which might be of the slightest use to the men remaining prisoners in Germany; and although he has been examined by numerous authorities since his return to this country, and although he was anxious to get his examination by myself concluded at the earliest possible moment he was careful to say that he must not let his own personal convenience prevent him from giving all the information he could to assist the Committee.

I have no hesitation in saying that I consider Private Henry Lamert Thomas to be a thoroughly reliable witness.  He appears to have used every opportunity that he had of observing not only the conditions in the camps, but among the civilian population of Germany, and I regard this witness as being of rather more than ordinary intelligence.

Dated the 28th day of November 1917.

R.C. SWAINE,

53, Coleman Street, London, E.C.2.

Solicitor

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I have created a PDF version of this account, available here.

– Michael G. Moskow

The Long Way Home: An Australian Jewish POW in World War One – I

     In August of 1916, the mother of a soldier serving in the Australian Army placed pen to paper, and composed the following letter to Captain McLean of the Australian Imperial Forces, concerning her son, Henry Lamert Thomas, a Private in the 30th Battalion, A.I.F.

Toronto
Lake MacQuarie
Via Newcastle
N.S. Wales
Aug. 24th 1916

Captain McLean
Base Records
Melbourne

Dear Sir

     The Defence Dept have advised me that my son No. 2466 Pri. H.L. Thomas 30th Battalion is officially reported Missing since 20th July 1916.  Can you possibly ascertain for me if he has been made a prisoner of war if so would letters be delivered to him.  He left Sydney March 11th as leading reinforcements and shortly after his arrival in Egypt reverted to the ranks (at his own request) to join his battalion.  Mrs. Hunt wife of Major Hunt at present in service with 35th Battalion has assured me that you will use your best efforts to help me in my time of anxiety.  Kindly reply as soon as you can.

Yours Sincerely
(Mrs.) J. Thomas

thomas-henry-l-7athomas-henry-l-7b____________________

     Some three months later, having since learned that – in the midst of the carnage of 1916, her once-missing son was miraculously alive, and a prisoner of the Germans – she again wrote to Captain McLean, this time regarding her son’s receipt of parcels and letters:

Te Aroha
Toronto
Lake MacQuarie
N.S. Wales
Nov. 6th 1916

Captain McLean
Dear Sir

     Could you inform me if the _____ parcels of letters belonging to my son No. 2466 Pfc. H.L. Thomas have been returned to Australia?  He has been a prisoner of war in Germany since July 20th. Parcels or letters have been posted fortnightly since he left Australia March 11th some of which have reached him.  Up to June his address was Sergt – Etampes he left as Sergt [with] the 4th reinforcements 35th Battalion but reverted to the ranks to join his Battalion to go to France where he [was] taken prisoner.

Thanking you
Yours truly
(Mrs.) L.A. Thomas

thomas-henry-l-8____________________

     At the time of her second letter, Private Thomas was imprisoned at Erkrath, Germany.  A little less than a year later he would be free, having escaped from German captivity in the company of Private Hector Holmes.  He survived the war, and doubtless, eventually returned to Australia. 

     What makes this story notable is the preservation and availability of a remarkably detailed account of the capture and captivity of this Australian Jewish Soldier, which is presented in this post.

     Born in New South Wales in 1897, Henry L. Thomas was the son of Mrs. Francis Thomas, who resided at Te Aroha, on Brighton Ave., in Toronto (a suburb of Newcastle in New South Wales), by occupation a railway clerk with the New South Wales Government Railway.   

     Private Thomas’ Interview is appended to his Attestation Papers, which can be accessed at the website of the National Archives of Australia (“NAA”; http://naa.gov.au/).*  His Attestation Papers are presented below, while a transcript of his interview is presented in my “next” post.

     A member of B Company, 30th Battalion, 4th Reinforcements, Australian Imperial forces, Thomas was captured on July 20, 1916, in the midst of the Battle of the Somme, which transpired from July 1 to November 18 of that year. 

     According to the Australian War Memorial, “The 30th Battalion was raised as part of the 8th Brigade at Liverpool in New South Wales on 5 August 1915.  Most of its recruits hailed from the Newcastle region and other parts of country New South Wales, but almost an entire company was composed of former RAN ratings from Victoria.

     The 8th Brigade joined the newly raised 5th Australian Division in Egypt and proceeded to France, destined for the Western Front, in June 1916.  The 30th Battalion’s first major battle was at Fromelles on 19 July 1916.  It was tasked with providing carrying parties for supplies and ammunition but was soon drawn into the vicious fighting.  Following Fromelles, the battalion was rotated in and out of the front line along with others in the brigade, but played no major offensive role for the rest of the year.”

     A prisoner at various locations in Germany, he escaped from German captivity in October of 1917 and eventually returned to Allied control. 

     Thomas was sent to or interned at the following locations after his capture:

France

Loos (temporary POW holding facility)                                                  20 July 1916
Lille (temporary POW holding facility)                 20 July 1916 through 22 July 1916

In Transit from France to Germany

By train from Lille to Dulmen, Germany               22 July 1916 through 24 July 1916

Germany

Dulmen (Lager Number 3)                         24 July 1916 through 4 September 1916
Erkrath (near Dusseldorf)                  4 September 1916 through 10 February 1917
Munster (POW Camp Number1)                  10 February 1917 through 4 April 1917
Duisberg Meidrich (Work Commando)           4 April 1917 through 27 October 1917

     It is notable that only one month transpired between his escape, and the interview of 1917. 

     Of particular interest is the incorporation of the German document used to record biographical information, within Private Thomas’ Attestation Papers.  An intriguing aspect of the document is that it is bilingual – unlike German POW documents during the Second World War – with headings in both English and German. 

     The information recorded in the POW record comprises:

Stammlager / Principal Camp       (or)         Lazarett / Hospital
Datum der Ausfertigung / Date
Zuname / Surname
Vorname / Christian Name
Rang / Rank
Reg. oder Korps / Regiment or Corps
Reg. Nr. / Regiment Number
Komp. / Company
Erkennsungsmarke Nr. / Number of Identification disc
Gefangennahme / Capture
Ort / Place [of capture]
Datum / Date [of capture]
Ob verwundet / Whether wounded
Bezeichnung der Wunde / Description of wound
Geburt / Birth
Ort / Place [of birth]
Datum / Date [of birth]
Heimatort / Home Place [address]
Adresse des nachsten Verwandten / Address of next-of-kin

____________________

     The account of Thomas’ capture and captivity, recorded by R.C. Swain in London on November 28, 1917, focuses almost entirely on Thomas’ life as a POW, in terms of life in the POW camps where he was interned, his interactions with fellow POWs and Germans (the latter both in military and civilian capacities), and, living and working conditions in Germany. 

     As such, the document does not cover Thomas’ prior experiences as a soldier, and unfortunately, accords tantalizingly little attention to the specific military action in which he was captured, the discussion of which is limited to the first few paragraphs.  Similarly; unfortunately – even more tantalizingly! – it contains no information about his escape, as such. 

     (Presumably, such documents do exist – somewhere.  But, where?)

     However, nominal information about Pvt. Thomas’ escape does exist, and is present in the Enquiry Bureau Files of the Australian Red Cross Society for Wounded and Missing.  (A copy of this document is also present in Pvt. Thomas’ Attestation Papers.)  There, a document headed “Prisoner of War” and dated November 19, 1917, states:

“My mate and myself have escaped from Germany, we have to remain, 16 days here before going to England, the people are very kind it is like home.  After leaving Germany we left our camp on Friday evening and arrived in Holland Thursday morning.  We are very tired but happy at last.  Extract from post-card written by Hector Holmes 3555 30th Batt dated 3.11.17 from Righs Quarantine, Sittard.  Holland refers to man and Holmes escape together.  Post-card received 17/11/17.”

     A later document, dated December 4 and headed “Escaped Prisoner of War”, states:

”Left Duisberg Meiderick 26.10.17 arrived Holland 30.10.17.  –  Left Holland arrived England 21.11.17 – reported at A.I.F. Headquarters to Colonel Griffiths at 6 p.m. 23.11.17 – reported to B. Records [Base Records] 24.11.17.

Information from Man given 29.11.17.”

     In civilian life, Private Hector Holmes, 3555, was a farmer from Branxton, New South Wales.  He served in the 56th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force.  Like Private Thomas, he was captured on July 20. 

____________________

     In a larger context, Private Thomas was one of the over five hundred Australian Jewish soldiers who were military casualties (killed, wounded, missing, prisoners of war, or injured) in the First World War.  About 470 of these men’s names appear in Reverend Michael Adler’s British Jewry’s Book of Honour, while the names of some 38 are absent from that publication.  The names of these nearly 510 men – as well as of those Australian Jewish servicemen fortunate enough to have experienced the First World War without wounds, injury, or captivity – occupy pages 549 through 566 of Reverend Adler’s book.  There, Private Thomas’ name appears on page 565. 

     The names of 144 of “the 470” – in connection with news stories, announcements of military decorations, or casualty notices – appeared in The Jewish Chronicle (London) during WW I. 

     Private Thomas’ name is also listed on page 82 of the Australian Jewry Book of Honour, that publication indicating that he received the Military Medal, and giving his middle name as “Lambert”.   An image of this page appears below:

ajbh-82____________________

     The following images comprise the Attestation Papers of Private Thomas.  The physical format of these documents, and the information recorded within them, is representative of Attestation Forms used by the Australian Imperial Forces and other nations of the British Commonwealth, during the First World War.

____________________

thomas-henry-l-1     The first page covers the enlistee’s biographical Information.  Notice that the enlistee has been required to sign his name, and record the date of enlistment.

____________________

thomas-henry-l-2     The second page covers his physical description, religious affiliation, Certificate of Medical Examination, and Certificate of the Commanding Officer at the station of enlistment.  This page also includes the enlistee’s signature.

____________________

thomas-henry-l-3     The same sheet as above, to which has been attached a document showing updates about Private Thomas’ “Missing in Action” and “Prisoner of War” status.

____________________

thomas-henry-l-4     Continuing with the same page, Private Thomas’ German POW information sheet (described above) has been attached.

____________________

thomas-henry-l-5     And finally, the notice of his escape, with Private Hector Holmes (transcribed above), from German captivity. 

____________________

References

Books

Adler, Michael, British Jewry’s Book of Honour, Caxton Publishing Company, London, England, 1922.

Banks, Arthur, A Military Atlas of the First World War, Leo Cooper, South Yorkshire, England, 2001

Boas, Harold, Australian Jewry Book of Honour – The Great War, 1914-1918, Lamson Paragon (West Australia), Ltd., Perth, Western Australia, 1923.  (Accessed at the Dorot Jewish Division of the New York Public Library.)

Gilbert, Martin, The Routledge Atlas of the First World War (2nd Edition), Routledge, London, England, 2002

Macdonald, Lynn, Somme, Michael Joseph, London, England, 1985

Attestation Papers

Holmes, Hector, 3555, at web site of National Archives of Australia (http://www.naa.gov.au/). 

Thomas, Henry Lamert, 2466, Private, at web site of National Archives of Australia (http://www.naa.gov.au/). 

Other Sources of Information

Australian Red Cross Society Wounded and Missing Enquiry Bureau Files, 1914-18 War, 1DRL/0428, for 2466 Private Henry Lamert Thomas, 30th Battalion, at https://www.awm.gov.au.

New South Wales Association of Jewish ex Servicemen and Women, Detail, 2001, at (http://www.najex.org.au/)

30th Australian Infantry Battalion, at https://www.awm.gov.au/unit/U51470/

____________________

     * As shown in the screen-shots below, the NAA’s search engine is well designed, easy to use, and very intuitive (and aesthetic! – as is the NAA’s website in general), presenting records in easily recognizable and retrievable fashion.  Documents are provided as 120 dpi JPGs, which, though not of the highest resolution, certainly have enough clarity for working purposes, and can be adjusted and enhanced as desired via Photoshop or other relevant software.

naa-1     Opening page of the NAA website.  Note the search box in the upper center of the page.

naa-2     A boolean search has been made for “Thomas” “2466”, which generates 8 records.  Records that have been digitized are denoted by a stylized “page” icon in the right portion of the screen.

naa-3     Upon clicking the pertinent icon, the user is presented with an image of the “first” document in the set of selected records.  Using the gray and green “previous” and “next” buttons, the user can scroll through the entire set of documents in reverse or forward fashion, respectively.  Or, the user can move to a specific page in the set of documents, using the “jump to page” field.

naa-4     If desired, the entire set of digitized images can be viewed as a group, and specific images viewed at full size by clicking the relevant icon.

____________________

     Though I am not familiar with the details, the NAA has apparently digitized Attestation Papers for all Australian WW I servicemen, generating an extraordinarily useful resource for those researching military history and genealogy, as well as other fields, such as sociology, economics, immigration, and demography.

__________________

– Michael G. Moskow