A Chronicle of The Chronicle : The Jewish Chronicle of England, A Mid-Century View

A primary source of information for many of the posts that have appeared on this blog (let alone those that have yet to appear…!) has been The Jewish Chronicle.  Similarly, numerous posts pertaining to Jewish military service in the First World War have presented the full text of items published in the Chronicle

Sometimes, however, it’s intriguing to learn the history, behind the history. 

Such is the nature of this post:  A discussion, from the Jewish Frontier of June, 1954, of the news coverage, content, format, and especially the editorial policies of the Chronicle, in terms of the periodical’s cultural, literary, and political centrality within British – and not just British – Jewry.  As such, the Frontier’s article, by English writer and poet Herbert Howarth, offers a fascinating mid-twentieth century perspective of the Chronicle, and indirectly, British Jewry.

But, who was Herbert Howarth?  Born on April 26, 1917, he studied at Oxford University, and became a translator of Arabic poetry.  He served as assistant Public Information Officer for the British Government in Tel Aviv from 1943 through 1945, from which position he resigned in December of 1945, in protest of Great Britain’s “palestine” policy.  (The Nebraska State Journal, February 9, 1946) 

Subsequently, Mr. Howarth served for a one-year-appointment as a Professor of English at the University of Pittsburgh, having been brought to that University by Chancellor Edward H. Litchfield in support of the University’s new Humanities Division.  The head of Britain’s National Book League for five years, he, “…became a leading figure in the study of modernism and a visiting professor at many American universities.”  Apparently, he was subsequently a member the Department of English at the University of Pennsylvania, where he chaired 15 Doctoral Dissertations which were completed between 1966 and 1972. 

His books include The Irish Writers (1959), Notes on Some Figures Behind T.S. Eliot (1966), and The Tiger’s Heart (1969). 

A search of the database of the National Library of Israel reveals other items by or about Mr. Howarth, which appeared in The Palestine Post:

Mr. Howarth’s Resignation (Reader’s Letters) – (From Ester Frankenstein, Kfar Ganim, December 18, 1945) – December 26, 1945

Background to Resignation – January 6, 1946

A Gentile’s Approach to Zionism – January 15, 1946

Koestler’s First Play – February 22, 1946

Lawrence of Arabia – March 15, 1946

India and the British Conscience – March 29, 1946

An Age Has Passed – September 6, 1946

Year After Bournemouth: A Message to My Friends in Palestine – November 13, 1946

Anti-Semitism in Britain – February 16, 1947

Mr. Howarth’s literary oeuvre includes these additional works, published in Commentary:

Culture & Civilization / Literature / Memoir: An Evening with Israel’s Poets: Creative Voices in a Time of Trouble
Nov. 1, 1949

Art / Culture & Civilization / Judaism: Jewish Art and the Fear of the Image: The Escape from an Age-Old Inhibition
Feb. 1, 1950

Culture & Civilization / Israel / Literature: Israel’s Modern Poetry: New Voices, New Modes of Speech
Aug. 1, 1950

Culture & Civilization / Literature: Flecker: The Poet and His East: “Shall I Never Be Home . . .?”
May 1, 1951

Law, Government & Society / Media/Politics & Ideas: Behind Winston Churchill’s Grand Style: Britain’s Prophet of Doom and Defiance
June 1, 1951

Israel/Law, Government & Society / Terrorism: The Revolt: Story of the Irgun, by Menachem Begin
Dec. 1, 1951

Israel/Literature / Military: Unambo, by Max Brod
May 1, 1952

Literature: Poet Out of Israel: The Odyssey of Pinhas Sadeh
Aug. 1, 1956

Religion: Bible and Sword, by Barbara W. Tuchman
Apr. 1, 1957

Culture & Civilization: Discords in the Music of Time
Jan. 1, 1972

Herbert Howarth died on July 5, 1971.  He is buried at Har Jeuhda Cemetery, in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania.


To place the history of the Chronicle in a deeper perspective, this post also includes a synopsis of the history of the publication from 1841 to 1941, transcribed from the Chronicle of November 14, 1941. 


University of Pittsburgh – History of the Department of English – 1950s Faculty (at University of Pittsburgh)

Herbert Howarth Biography (at University of Pennsylvania)




The Jewish Chronicle of England
by Herbert Howarth

Jewish Frontier
June, 1954

THE JEWISH COMMUNITY in England perfectly well fulfills that favorite Jewish paying: “Two Jews – three opinions,” and its natural extension into “Two Jews – three political parties.”  But to one phase of its corporate existence no charge of plurality can apply.  It has only one newspaper.

               In the course of more than a century – throughout the period, that is, in which the community has formed like a coral reef through successive immigrations – other papers have risen, but they have also fallen.  The Jewish Chronicle, surmounting challenges from outside and the internal problems that come with changes of ownership or editors, has remained.  There is only one Jewish Chronicle, and it is the recognized common bond of the community.  When a new front-page heading was established in 1937 (the designer for it being the distinguished young typographer, Berthold Wolpe), the claim “The Organ of British Jewry” was inserted, to become a regular part of it; and that claim is valid.

               The Chronicle (or rather as it is referred to colloquially as the J.C.) is a weekly.  In its postwar form it is normally made up of 32 pages, and is published every Friday at sixpence.  In many typical households it is briefly read on Friday evening, then on Saturday passed ground and read intensively by every man, woman, and alert growing child.  What are the contents, or what their characteristics, that they compel the loyal and devoted reading that this fact implies?

               The front page selects from the main worldwide events of the week those which relate directly to Jewish life, and reports them objectively, generally under the by-line “From our own correspondent.”  Whatever is of predominant interest each week in Israel’s affairs will most frequently take the chief position, but news from Germany, and sometimes from elsewhere in Europe, is often prominent at this time; and not infrequently there are reports from U.S.A.  The headlines and presentation are as markedly free from color as the paragraphs of reportage below them.  It might be said with much appearance of truth that the editor has modelled himself on The Times in an effort to avoid tendentiousness, or even any emphasis at all, in the style and wording of the first page with its master-news.

               One should only add, in order to give the feeling of it in full, that the editor usually allocates one column on this page to a piece of British community news.  Sometimes the community item has more or less comparable weight with the international news around it – as when, for instance, Sir Hartley Shawcross made a political speech at a British dinner in aid of the Haifa Technion and was duly reported in the first column.  But when an item linked with international matters is not available, then the editor quite candidly finds a place on the front page for whatever seems to him of “splashable” community interest that week, whether it be a debase in the Council of the United Synagogues or a rally of Jewish ex-servicemen.  Similarly a photograph of prominent community personalities is often chosen to go on the front page among those of Moshe Sharett, Abba Eban, General Bennike, Dag Hammarskjold, or whoever of international size may naturally figure there in the current week.

THERE IS LITTLE in what has been described so far to explain why the Jewish Chronicle is such an effective, compelling, and deeply-rooted family paper.  But turn it over, and pages two and three supply the answer.  These are the most-studied parts: they are solidly made up of “Small Advertisements,” announcing births, bar-mitzvahs, engagements, deaths.  Page four contains small ads of a more commercial sort, offering houses for sale and rooms to let.  Page seven, the star page in this class, consists of advertisements much more expensive and accordingly printed as if they were news, under the heading “Social and Personal.”  Here, by paying four pounds for the first 45 words, a further pound for each nine words thereafter, the more fortunate families tell each other of the felicity of their children.

               “With rejoicing, with envy, with delight, malice, and anger, these pages are analyzed by the women of the community at the weekend.  The tumults of emotion and the corresponding comments that they elicit are a theme for Israel Zangwill’s pen rather than mine.  In Grandchildren of the Ghetto, dealing with those families that have grown to love grandeur and lost touch with the piety that was part of the ghetto’s poverty, he has indicated what he might say were he still here to say it.  But as regards the stability and magnetism of The Jewish Chronicle, there is no doubt that at present – I would like to underline these words and to return to them shortly – they are bound up with the regular recurrence and accumulated prestige of these pages.

               These small notices provide an all-over faithful readership: and in return they assure, I would assume, a strong array of applicants for the larger general advertisement space; and so in turn they enable the J.C. to support correspondents all over the world and to buy excellent reporting and distinguished features; and so in turn to appeal by these latter to a different, possibly less numerous, more discerning class of reader who cares not much for the matrimonial union of houses.

               To which pages then, do readers of the more discerning kind turn?  Above all, to the middle spread.  On the left hand page they find the responsible emphasis on literacy in the community – a book review.  On the right hand page they have the main feature articles.  There can be no question of the steady merit of the features in The Jewish Chronicle.  The writers of the newspaper’s history (a centenary volume, or sefer zikaron, which the war delayed, but which was successfully published in 1949 under the firm’s own imprint) stress that the earliest nineteenth-century editor set a high standard in seeking serious and scholarly contributors; at no time has that tradition lapsed very far; and it is well in evidence today.  Similarly, wherever a reader looks in the paper he is likely to find, even in these overtly bourgeois surroundings, the same concern for tarbuth that one finds in Israel and notably in Israel’s kibbutzim.  The work of Jewish musicians, writers, artists, and the work of non-Jews where it becomes contingent on Jewish interests, is brought before him: the latest book of Edmund Fleg, shall we say; the controversy over Sholem Asch; the history of Jewry in a city like Mantua; a new television symbol designed by Mr. Games; the researches of a palaeographer.  All matters of these or analogous kinds are well covered.

NOT SUCH DECISIVE praise can be paid to the editorials.  At first reading they may appear imposing.  They are well-groomed in style; they are reasoned and reasonable; they are careful and moderate.  Sometimes they strike a fine and positively inspiring note; an editorial that definitely did so was that on Mr. Ben Gurion’s withdrawal from public life to the soil: “Amid all the extraordinary vicissitudes which have overwhelmed the Land of Israel he has displayed pre-eminent gifts of statesmanship and has become the foremost architect of the new State.  Yet, as is eloquently attested by his private and public life, he has never lost the common touch nor failed to preserve his warm-hearted sympathies with ordinary folk.”  It was not hard, however, to be editorially appreciative of Mr. Ben Gurion’s striking action; even The Times, (the editorials of which, by the way, are recently more vigorous than they were, also more unpredictable, being sometimes greatly humane, sometimes otherwise) succeeded in commending the Premier’s retirement in warm terms, likening him to Cincinnatus.

               To write a tribute in noble form, then, is natural and easy to The Jewish Chronicle.  And on the other hand, it knows its metier when it comes to writing a straightforward, factually-based condemnation of, say, Dr. Adenauer’s recruitment of Nazis for a new Cabinet.  But is there ever a word in the editorial matter of the J.C. which will come as a surprise to the readers?  To strike out a new thought, to speak in a ringing voice, to precipitate its readers into a state of salutary shock – the J.C. of today is unlikely to venture into these.

               This is nearly enough in keeping with that comfortable condition in the community which once incensed, and is still apt to incense, visitors from Israel, who are accustomed to more spirit and to a rhythm of pioneering which inevitably calls for unconventional ideas and an eternal readiness to make ventures.  “Nothing venture, nothing win” is an old proverb here.  But it has not a very great appeal for the Chronicle’s able team of managers-and writers.

               If he chances to read these remarks, the editor might well reply “What does Mr. Howarth (who in any case has no particular business to interfere) want us to do?  Can he point to a single editorial in which we have failed in our duty?  Can he tell us anything that we clearly ought to have said, that we have nevertheless omitted to say?”- Such a retort would be fair and would leave me, and any others who may think as I do, silent.  But it would not erase the feeling, so strong, that the J.C. breathes an air of satisfaction with its own reticence and rectitude, and reclines beatifically , on the knowledge that it is “the organ of British Jewry,” as if the fixed audience for it “smalls” and its “Social and Personal” were purely land simply the seal of success.  The fact is; that the huge and devoted audience records the success of previous generations of editors, and for the present generation it should really mean a responsibility and an opportunity. 

               Yes, that was the point I had in mind when hinting a little way back that the relationship between the standing of the paper and its social attractiveness may be a phenomenon of the present only, not a permanency like Mount Sinai on which the managing-board can count forever.  The courage and when necessary the aggressiveness, of previous editors made the paper a powerful and influential one, and thus assured the readership that now sustains it as a medium for the social panoply of pre-nuptials and post-nuptials.  But if the paper becomes shot throughout with the vanity of social esteem, and if, whether as a result of that circumstance or for any other reason, the lead to the community should cease to be a challenging one, then the readership may falter, turn, and decline.  The One newspaper might even cease to be the One.

THE YOUNG PEOPLE are impatient, some of them at least, with the family-ideology in which they are reared in this country.  Like Raphael Leon in Grandchildren of the Ghetto, they conceive of more invigorating things.  As no enduring rival to the J.C. has yet come along, they eventually settle down to the old dispensation, unless they pack up and go to Israel or to the U.S.A.

               It might do the Jewish Chronicle good if a rival became strong enough to force its pace.  At the moment Jon Kimche’s Jewish Observer is attracting interest, but it remains to be seen whether or how quickly it can grow, or whether, like others before it, it may in the end quit the field.

               There is, of course, more than a possibility that those in whose hands the direction of The Jewish Chronicle lies feel that they should take thought not only for the manner in which they influence the community, but also for the immediate repercussions and the long-term influence of their treatment of problems on the listening non-Jewish, public, particularly the Government.  In the official sefer zikaron, referred to above, there is reproduced a postcard of 1877 from Mr. Gladstone to Dr. Benisch, then editor of The Jewish Chronicle: it is symbolic of the tradition by which this organ mediates, either actually or potentially, between politicians or other leaders of the nation and the community which it represents.  In the light of this consideration it may be felt that a judicious tone is of all desiderata the most desirable.  Such a viewpoint could well be understood; yet even so, it might, as construed in practice, be mistaken.  For the Chronicle could possibly be more vigorous without abandoning its virtues of rationality and good taste.  By and large, the newspaper that is to be a light to the Gentile will begin by being a flame to its own community.

               If in the preceding paragraphs I have allowed expression to a feeling that The Jewish Chronicle is not the active force it once was and deserves always to be, I would not have anyone suppose that, for want of being perfect, it is not good, and very good at that.  Sound, solid – it definitely has these qualities, to which I have above ventured to attach the out-of-date adjective of “bourgeois.”

               And it is in fact more than that.  It is rich in information.  It carries the living annals of the Jewish people not only in these islands but also throughout the world.  This consideration alone would justify, and more than justify, its existence.  Yet again and conversely, the Chronicle is one of those instruments which can rightly be said to justify themselves by continuing to exist – in the sense that if ever need arises, they will be there to serve; they will be there to convey the message that the hour occasions, and their public will be there to serve as the hour requires.

               Having survived its first century, and enjoying the devotion of a reading public unequalled by almost any other Jewish publication in the world, the Jewish Chronicle of England has become the envied model (as well as an enigma) for many an editor of a Jewish periodical who would like to find out the secret of its longevity and success and emulate them.  In the following article Herbert Howarth, noted English writer, describes what makes the J.C. go round.


The Jewish Chronicle
November 14, 1941

1841 – 1941

A Chronological Synopsis

1841, November 12
               “The Jewish Chronicle” is founded as a weekly by Isaac Valentine, under the leadership of Moses Angel and David Meldola, whose names however do not figure until later on.  It is a quarto, of four pages; the editorial offices are at 132, Houndsditch, London; the price is 2d.

1842, May 6
               “New Series” begins, an octavo of 16 pp.

1842, May 20
               Last number of the new series” appears; publication is suspended for a year and a half.

1842, October 18
               Publication by Joseph Mitchell as “Proprietor” in collaboration with Isaac Valentine of the first number of “The Jewish Chronicle (new series) and Working Man’s Friend.”  The paper is now a fortnightly consisting of eight quarto pages, and the price is 2d.  The sub-title “and Working Man’s Friend” is omitted after the twentieth issue.

1846, April
               Offices removed to 24, Houndsditch.

1847, October 8
               “The Jewish Chronicle” becomes a weekly, and remains a weekly henceforth.

1848, October 4
               Marcus Heymann Bresslau, who had assisted Mitchell at the beginning but subsequently quarreled with him, formally becomes Editor.

1850, October 11
               Beginning of the publication of an “enlarged series” in folio size priced at 3d. a copy.

1854, June-August
               On Mitchell’s death, Bresslau becomes Proprietor as well as Editor

1854, December 22
               Title changed, with the premature beginning of volume xi, to “The Jewish Chronicle and Hebrew Observer,” having been amalgamated with “The Hebrew Observer” founded by Dr. Abraham Benisch at the beginning of 1853.  The size is enlarged to double demy.  The offices are moved to 7, Bevis Marks.

1855, January
               Benisch becomes Editor and Proprietor.

1865, February
               The offices are moved to 11, Castle Street, Houndsditch.

1868, July 3
               Sixth “new series” begins, in newspaper folio, an abridged penny edition being published simultaneously to meet cheap competition.

1869, April 2
               Control having been acquired from Benisch by L.L. Cohen, S. Montagu, and L. Van Oven, a further (and final) “new series” begins under the editorship of Michael Henry, the words “and Hebrew Observer” being omitted from the title henceforth.  The Penny Edition is discontinued, and the price of the Main Edition reduced from 3d. to 2d.  The size is again reduced to the former measurement, and the number of pages (generally sixteen or twenty-four) is no longer fixed.

1870, March
               The offices are moved to 43, Finsbury Square.

1875, June
               On Henry’s death, Benisch resumes control and editorship.

1878, July
               On Benisch’s death, he leaves “The Jewish Chronicle” to the Anglo-Jewish Association, from which it is purchased by Israel Davis, Sydney Montagu Samuel, and Asher Myers, the last of whom becomes Editor.

1880, June
               The offices are moved to 2, Finsbury Square.

1891-1892, July
               Publication of “Darkest Russia” as monthly supplement.

1902, May
               On the death of Asher Myers (who had been predeceased by S.M. Samuel) Israel Davis becomes proprietor and henceforth controls the publication, Morris Duparc being the working editor.

1907, January
               “The Jewish Chronicle” passes into the control of L.J. Greenberg, who becomes Editor.  It is subsequently turned into a Limited Company.  “Young Israel,” the children’s supplement, is introduced.  The Company acquires the “Jewish Year Book,” up to then the property of L.J. Greenberg, who founded it.

1913, April
               “The Jewish Chronicle” buys up the “Jewish World” (founded in 1873) which is published henceforth from the same offices and is also edited by L.J. Greenberg.

1916, July
               Price increased to 3d.

1918, March
               Priced increased to 4d.

1921, January 28
               Beginning of the publication of the monthly “Jewish Chronicle Supplement,” which continued until August, 1939.

1931, November 15
               Death of L.J. Greenberg.

1932, January 1
               J.M. Rich becomes Editor.

1934, February 9
               The “Jewish World” is incorporated with “The Jewish Chronicle” and ceases separate publication.

1935, July
               The offices are moved to 47-49, Moor Lane.  Mechanical type composition replaces the hand-setting which had been employed up to this date.

1936, December
               Ivan M. Greenberg, son of L.J. Greenberg, succeeds J.M. Rich as Editor.

1937, February 26
               The “Jewish Chronicle Supplement” issued in new format and pinned separately.

1937, November 12
               Typography of the paper altered to the new Times Roman.

1939, September
               Owing to war conditions, the format is changed, the cover being abandoned, and emergency offices are taken over in High Wycombe.

1940, December 29
               The London offices in Moor Lane are totally destroyed with all contents and records in the course of a German air raid on London.  The temporary offices subsequently occupied in Mansion House Chambers, Queen Victoria Street, are similarly destroyed on the night of May 10, 1941, fresh offices being taken at 88, Chancery Lane.

1941, November 12


Soldiers from New York: Jewish Soldiers in The New York Times, in World War Two: 1 Lt. Arthur S. Goldstein – April 2, 1945

The name of Second Lieutenant Arthur S. Goldstein (0-558376) appeared in a Casualty List published on May 10, 1945, indicating that he was missing in action in Europe.  Only eleven months later – in an obituary (below) published on April 8, 1946 – was it confirmed and revealed that he was killed in action on April 2, 1945, in Germany.  A member of the 36th Tank Battalion of the 8th Armored Division, his name is commemorated on the Tablets of the Missing at the Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium.

The 36th Tank Battalion After Action Reports for April of 1945 are enigmatic about his fate, only indicating that the Battalion incurred the losses of 1 officer and 5 enlisted men killed, and 3 officers and 33 enlisted men wounded, during that month.  Few specifics are given pertaining to the dates when and locations where most of these casualties occurred, and the mens’ names do not appear in the document.

Consistent with the records of many other American Second World War Casualties who remain “Missing in Action”, the American Battle Monuments Commission’s commemorative record for Lt. Goldstein gives his date of death as April 3, 1946, symbolically reflecting the passage of one year plus one day, from the calendar date on which he was actually killed.

Killed During a Battle In Germany a Year Ago

A Google street view of the Goldstein family’s wartime residence:  200 West 93rd Street, in Manhattan.

Second Lieut. Arthur S. Goldstein, who was reported missing in action on April 28, 1945, was killed during a battle at Neuhaus, Germany, the War Department yesterday notified his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Goldstein, of 200 West Ninety-Third Street.  Lieutenant Goldstein was 22 years old.

A Graduate of Townsend Harris High School, Lieutenant Goldstein was attending City College in 1942 when he entered the Army.  He was a member of Sigma Alpha Mu Fraternity.  In addition to his parents, he leaves two brothers, Richard and Irving, and a sister, Carol.


Some other Jewish military casualties on Monday, April 2, 1945, include…

Killed in Action

– .ת.נ.צ.ב.ה. –

Abrahams, Samuel, Trooper, 406603
England, Royal Armoured Corps
Mrs. Florence May Abrahams (wife), 26 Oakland Grove, Shepherd’s Bush, London, W12, England
Mr. Henry Abrahams (father)
Born 1915
Hasselt (Kruisveld) Communal Cemetery, Hasselt, Limburg, Belgium – Row C, Grave 3
The Jewish Chronicle 4/20/45
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 54

, Isaac, T/4, 33054832, Purple Heart

United States Army, 77th Infantry Division, 305th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Meyer Berkowitz (father), 634 Jackson St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Jacob, Pvt. Larry M. and Maurice (brothers), 348 Wolf St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1920
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Collingdale, Pa. (?)
The Jewish Exponent 10/13/44, 6/8/45
Philadelphia Inquirer 5/27/45
Philadelphia Record 10/4/44, 5/28/45
American Jews in World War II – 511


Blume, Nathan J., S/Sgt., 42080027, Purple Heart
United States Army, 91st Chemical Battalion
Mrs. Nessie Blume (mother), 517 West 3rd St., Wilmington, De.
Born 1/17/14
Jewish Community Cemetery, Wilmington, De.
American Jews in World War II – 73


Brids, Martin R., PFC, 31294009, Purple Heart (at Luzon, Philippines)
United States Army, 6th Infantry Division, 1st Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Anna Brids (mother), 55 Broadway, Quincy, Ma.
Born 1924
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot F, Row 16, Grave 101
American Jews in World War II – 152


Danowitz, Jack M., 2 Lt., 0-868103, Flight Engineer, Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 499th Bomb Group, 877th Bomb Squadron
Mr. Kive Danowitz (father), Betty, Hubert (?), and Samuel (sister and brothers), 1271 Grant Ave., New York, N.Y.
MACR 13763; Aircraft: B-29 42-24650; “Jug Haid II”, “V 2”; Pilot: 1 Lt. Kenneth H. Dustin; 9 crewmen – no survivors
Mount Lebanon Cemetery, Glendale, N.Y. – Block WC, Section 5, Line 24, Grave 22, Workmen’s Circle Society
Casualty List 5/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 295

According to co-pilot Robert B. Merz’s biographical profile at Fold3.com, JUG HAID II was, …”hit with flak from anti-aircraft artillery while over the target area, and crashed in Ituka, near Kawasaki City in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan.”

This image of JUG HAID II’s nose art, possibly painted by Jim Howley (from Newark, New Jersey) is from his biographical profile at Sallyann Wagoner’s website (B-29.org) covering the history of the B-29 Superfortress. 

Documentation about Lt. Danowitz’s Missing in Action status includes the following “Record of Casualty”, recorded by and through the efforts of Major David I. Cedarbaum.  This document is one of 78 such records about Jewish casualties compiled by Major Cederabuam, as part of his overall efforts to document the service of Jewish airmen in the 20th Air Force.  He envisioned the postwar creation of a book about this subject.  Unfortunately, this never came to fruition. 

Based on the handwriting, this document seems to have been completed by W.D. Bary on Major Cedarbaum’s behalf.  The text states:  “Lt. Kenneth H. Dustin was the Airplane Commander.  The day prior to their final mission they were on another mission in which they dropped out of formation into danger by circling a plane that had ditched until rescue came for it.  On the April 2nd mission which [was] a night mission, four planes failed to return.  2 collided in the darkness and none were rescued & 2 were battle-damaged over the target & went down.   Conjecture can fashion a picture out of this information, but these are the only facts. – W.D. Bray”


Dolsky, Jack, Sgt., 16124052, Radio Operator, Air Medal, 5 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 13th Air Force, 5th Bomb Group, 23rd Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Helen D. Bram (sister), 2137 East 70th St., Chicago, Il.
MACR 14289; Aircraft: B-24J 44-70148; Pilot: 1 Lt. William C. Robison; 10 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines
Casualty List 5/11/45
American Jews in World War II – 97

Sergeant Dolsky’s aircraft, piloted by 1 Lt. William C. Robison, vanished on April 2, 1945, after a morning take-off from Green Island, for a strike mission to the Truk Islands.   Ten days later, Major Christopher Goldsbury, Commander of the 72nd Bomb Squadron, recorded that, “Airplane 42-70148 was never seen after take off, and no trace was ever found of either the airplane or its crew.”  Though the MACR records no specific reason for the plane’s loss, the document does mention the presence of, “Severe frontal areas between Green Island and Truk Islands.” 


Epstein, Sampson M., Pvt., 32675682, Purple Heart
United States Army, 8th Infantry Division, 28th Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Ethel Isaacson (brother in law and sister), 25 Harris St., Rochester, N.Y.
Born Rochester, N.Y., 4/4/23
Stonewood Avenue Cemetery, Rochester, N.Y. – Beth Hamedresh Hagodel Section; Buried 1/16/49
Casualty Lists 5/3/45, 6/9/45
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle 4/24/45
American Jews in World War II – 303

Ezra, Albert, S 1C, 7077834, Seaman, Purple Heart
United States Navy
Mr. and Mrs. Isaac and Rosa Ezra (parents), Jacob and Louis (brothers), 160 Havemeyer St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 6/4/22, New York, N.Y.
Served in New York National Guard from 1/13/41 to 8/2/41
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 6/7/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Fordham, Samuel Bernard, LAC, 2248679 (in Holland)
England, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and Racheal Fordham (parents), Clapton, London, England
Born 1922
Venray War Cemetery, Limburg, Netherlands – V,F,13
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 196

Glassman, William, PFC, 33122472, Purple Heart (Pacific Theater)
United States Army, 242nd Engineer Combat Battalion
Mrs. Miriam Glassman (wife), 2600 Briggs Ave., New York, N.Y.
Casualty List 5/31/45
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
American Jews in World War II – 322 (?)

Goldstein, Jacob, PFC, 32963601, Purple Heart
United States Army, 25th Infantry Division, 161st Infantry Regiment
Mrs. Rebecca Goldstein (mother), 483 Hopkinson Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Mr. Max Goldstein (brother), 1607 Prospect Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1914
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot F, Row 12, Grave 27
Casualty List 5/3/45
American Jews in World War II – 328

Goldwater, James J., PFC, 36299626
United States Army, 382nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion
Mr. Myer Goldwater (father), 1235 Superior Ave., Sheboygan, Wi.
Born 1923
Manila American Cemetery, Manila, Philippines – Plot J Row 11, Grave 72
American Jews in World War II – 584

Harar, Mordechai Shimon, Pvt., PAL/11401
England, Pioneer Corps
Died in Israel from illness
Ramleh 1939-45 Memorial, Ramleh, Israel
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 246, as “Hahar, Sh. M.”; CWGC as “Harar, Mordechai Shimon”


Herstam, Gordon Alan, Ensign, 0-164083, Navigator, Purple Heart
United States Navy, USS Goodhue
Killed by a Japanese suicide plane while acting as beach-master
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan and Lillian G. Herstam (parents), 2583 Overlook Road, Cleveland Heights, Oh.
Mrs. Ruth (Herstam) Goettinger (sister)
Born 1924
Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. – Section 34, Grave 4369
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, April 22 & 23, 1945, March 22, 1949
American Jews in World War II – 489

This photo of Ensign Herstam’s matezva is by FindAGrave contributor Michael [Randy] Walsh


Katz, Harry, PFC, 32410987 (Pacific Theater)
United States Army, 242nd Engineer Combat Battalion
Mrs. Lena Katz (mother), 9 Roberg Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1914
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/29/45
American Jews in World War II – 358

Lebhar, Jacques, Soldat (AC 21 P 72422), Croix de Guerre (at Belheim, Germany)
French Army
“In spite of a violent bombardment which had put horses and a large part of his section out of action, he gave care to his wounded comrades, and carried his severely wounded Section Chief under a heavy burst of fire.  Returning to his post at the moment when the Chief himself was wounded, he reassured his comrades and kept them in order by telling them: “Those who remain, at my command.” / Fallen gloriously at the Battle of the Somme.”
(Malgre un violent bombardement qui avait mis hors de combat kes cadres et une grosse partie de sa Section, à donne des soins à ses camarades blessés et transporté sur son dos, sous une rafale intense, son chef de Section grièvement blessé.  Revenu à son poste au moment où le Chef se Section lui-même était blessé, a rassuré ses camarades et les maintenus en ordre en leur disant: “Ceux qui restant, à mon commandement.” / Tombé glorieusement à la bataille de la Somme.)
23eme Infanterie, 9eme B.M.I.

Born Oran, Algeria, 4/30/19
Place of burial unknown
Livre d’Or et de Sang – 158

Levin, Mota Veniaminovich (Левин, Мота Вениаминович), Technician-Lieutenant [Техник-Лейтенант], Technician (Flight) [Техник Звена]
U.S.S.R., Military Air Forces – VVS, 311th Assault Aviation Division, 925th Assault Aviation Regiment
Mrs. Anna Veniaminovna Ginsburg (sister)
Born 1918


Levy, Jules, 2 Lt., 0-2057961, Navigator, Air Medal, Purple Heart, 10 missions
United States Army Air Force, 20th Air Force, 497th Bomb Group, 869th Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Rose Levy (mother), 1342 East 18th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 12/18/21, Brooklyn, N.Y.
Selman Field 44-G
MACR 13764; Aircraft: B-29 42-93883; Pilot: 1 Lt. Edwin F. Dietzel; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/9/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

The crew of B-29 42-93883 (nickname – if it had one – unknown) – lost during a mission to Tokyo – have never been found.  As recorded in the MACR, the “Aircraft took-off at 2100, 2 April 1945, Saipan, and was never seen or heard from since.”

Perhaps – supposition, on my part – the aircraft crashed at sea.

The photographic portrait below – of Lieutenant Levy – is one of 21 such images featured in Noah and Sadie G. Finkelstein’s 1951 book, Memorial Album – Dedicated to the Boys of the 20th Air Force

Akin to the report about Lt. Danowitz’s (above), Major Cedarbaum created a report covering Lt. Levy, as reported by Chaplain Hangse.  With no information about the plane and crew, the report simply states, “Bombing mission to Tokyo.  Did not return, no one saw it or heard from it, and no further information has ever been received.  Place of casualty is unknown.”

Biographies of the servicemen accompanying the photographic photographs in the Finkelstein’s book.  Typically written by the serviceman’s parents and (understandably; naturally; humanly) somewhat hagiographical, they are invaluable in terms of genealogy, and, in the way they invoke the aura of the 1930s and 1940s.  Jules’ biography, written by his mother, is presented below:


(December 18, 1921 – April 2, 1945)

Had Jules Levy lived his normal life-span, his absorbing passion for music, with special emphasis on the art of piano playing, would eventually have guided his career.  To understand the underlying motives in a young man’s mind and heart which stir him to creative tasks is to understand the main-springs of his character, and the finest tribute that can be paid to Jules’ memory is the attempt to picture those creative strivings in him.

He was born in Brooklyn. N.Y. on December 18, 1921.  There he graduated from Public School 197, James Madison High School, and religious school at Temple B’nai B’rith.  He studied music at City College, and later did clerical work for the government in Washington before entering the service.

He was promoted from the ranks to receive flying training and graduated from Salem Field as a navigator on a B-29. He was lost April 2, 1945, after having flown ten missions.  He had earned the Purple Heart Award.

His mother reveals that he was essentially of a reserved nature with an inner refinement, and very normal with respect to his liking of sports and other activities.  His letters home reflected a certain wisdom beyond his years, no doubt, from the grim experiences that the boys at the front encountered in their day to day living – with the unknown always a very present factor.  Throughout it all, however, Jules did not forget his real interest in life, his real passion – music, and he allowed himself the luxury, mental and spiritual, of dreaming what would be after the war.

Jules’ thoughts about music were not only creative, but they were mature.  He knew that we do not live by bread alone.  The fact that millions were fighting for something – different things to different men – was proof that each man needed to believe in some living principle.  Justice, democracy and those related concepts, were some of the things men believed in and fought for, even as he.

Beyond that, for Jules, were the creative things identified with music.  Music, like the other arts, opened up new worlds for humanity, and set standards by which to live as well.  He did not live to fulfill himself in this field, but at least he knew what he wanted, and what he wanted is a fitting memorial to the fine spirit which he possessed.

He is survived by his mother Rose Levy and a sister


Liebgott, Jean (AC-21P-76880) (at Plobsheim, Bas-Rhin, France)
France, Armée de Terre, 2eme Bataillon de Chasseurs
Tué au combat
France, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Jouef
Born 8/2/02
Place of burial unknown

Lorber, Lawrence M., PFC, 35059641, Purple Heart
United States Army, Americal Division, 182nd Infantry Regiment
Mr. and Mrs. Harry and Myrtle Lorber (parents), 1103 Parkwood Drive, Cleveland, Oh.
Mrs. Mildred Cohn (sister)
Born 1925
Place of burial – unknown
http://www.clevelandvetsmemorial.org/GCVM_Honor_Roll_Profile.asp?Infantry Division=1679
Cleveland Press, May 9, 1945, August 30, 1948
American Jews in World War II – 494

Mantell, William, M/Sgt., 12061488, Purple Heart (on Okinawa)
United States Army
Mr. Leon Mantell (father), “Clair, Gertrude, and Sam”, 1446 President St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Born 1913
Place of burial – unknown
Casualty List 5/28/45
New York Times Obituary Memorial Section 3/31/46, 4/6/47
American Jews in World War II – 387


Marcus, Joseph, S/Sgt., 39284367, Radio Operator, Air Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army Air Force, 13th Air Force, 5th Bomb Group, 23rd Bomb Squadron
Mrs. Sadie T. Marcus (mother), 1302 Gordon St., Hollywood, Ca.
Born 8/7/23
MACR 14252; Aircraft: B-24M 44-41853; Pilot: 2 Lt. Arthur M. Zipse; 11 crewmen – no survivors
Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, San Diego, Ca. – Section I, Grave 192; Buried 4/27/50
American Jews in World War II – 49

S/Sgt. Marcus’ Liberator, piloted by 2 Lt. Arthur M. Zipse, vanished during an observation flight to the northwest sector of the Negros Island, in the central part of the Philippine archipelago.   As reported in MACR 14252, at 1400 / I, the aircraft was contacted by two F4U Corsairs of Marine Air Group 14 while in the area assigned for the mission – Negros Island – and at that time, was not in difficulty.  Forty-five minutes later, at 1445 / I, the plane was again contacted by MAG 14 F4Us, with Lt. Zipse reporting that his destination was Bacolod, the capital city of Negros Island.  

Two hours later, at 1600 / I, MAG 14’s fighters were unable to make contact with the Liberator.   

Though the MACR sheds no further light on the fate of the crew, a record at FindAGrave for navigator 2 Lt. Donald C. Schwerin reveals more about the aircraft’s fate:  “For some time after the crewmen were reported missing in action, hope was maintained that eventually they might be found alive on an isolated south Pacific island.  It was discovered later, however, that the plane had crashed into a mountain in what was then Japanese held territory.  All the crewmen had been killed.”


Marks, Delbert Harold, 2 Lt., 0-34916, Fighter Pilot (Test Pilot)
United States Marine Corps, 9th Marine Air Wing, Marine Air Group 91, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland
Aircraft: F4U-1D Corsair, Bureau Number 80771; Crashed near Nickle Mine, Lancaster, Pa.
Mr. Sol Marks (father), Cpl. Seymour Marks and Miss Shirley Marks (brother and sister), 12325 Saint Clair Ave., Cleveland, Oh.
Born 1921
Place of burial unknown
Cleveland Press & Plain Dealer, April 4 & 7, 1945
American Jews in World War II – 494

Marshak, Lawrence, PFC, 563809, Purple Heart
United States Marine Corps, 6th Marine Division, 4th Marine Regiment, 3rd Battalion, L Company
Mr. Sam Marshak (father), 180 East 40th St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Place of Burial Unknown
Casualty List 6/15/45
American Jews in World War II – 389

Mosbacher, Stephen Sigmund, S/Sgt., 35554027, Silver Star, Purple Heart
United States Army, 8th Armored Division
Dr. and Mrs. Emil and Rose Mosbacher (parents), 617 Eleanor Ave., Cleveland, Oh.
Born Nurnberg, Gemany, 1923
Aufbau 4/27/45, 5/18/45
Netherlands American Cemetery, Margraten, Netherlands – Plot I, Row 11, Grave 9
American Jews in World War II – 495

Nirenberg, Alvin Harold, S 2C, 7140825, Seaman
United States Navy, Ammunition Ship (name unknown)
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan and Ruth Nirenberg (parents), 29 Park Ave., Mount Vernon, N.Y.
Mr. Leon Veeder (cousin), New Rochelle, N.Y.
Born 1926
Mount Hebron Cemetery, Flushing, N.Y. – Block 51, Reference 14, Section F, Line 11, Grave 6 – Nova Radomsker Society
Mount Vernon Daily Argus 4/5/45
American Jews in World War II – 400

Rosenberg, Bernard, SM 3C, 8099343, Signalman, Purple Heart
United States Navy
Mr. Sam Rosenberg (father), 273 Amboy St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii
Casualty List 5/29/45
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Schiff, David, PFC, 42058131, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart
United States Army, 97th Infantry Division, 387th Infantry Regiment
Mr. Morris Neidich (friend), 449 Powell St., Brooklyn, N.Y.
Tablets of the Missing at Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery, Henri-Chapelle, Belgium
Casualty Lists 5/18/45, 1/16/46
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Scholem, Dan, Driver, PAL/30212
England, Royal Army Service Corps, Number 2, Commando
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo and Marianna Scholem (parents), Brussels, Belgium
Born 1924
Ravenna War Cemetery, Piangipane, Ravenna, Italy – IV,C,1
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 156, 258, as “Sholem, Dan (Robert)”; CWGC as “Scholem, Robert”

Schreer, Schlomo, Pvt., 16727
England, Palestine Regiment, 1st Battalion
Ravenna War Cemetery, Piangipane, Ravenna, Italy – IV,C,2
We Will Remember Them (Volume I) – 156, 257, as “Shrier (Shrir), Shlomo” and “Screer, S”; CWGC as “Schreer, S.”

Schwartzstein, Georges (AC-21P-153111)
France, Francs Tireurs et Partisans Français
Concentration camp; Décédé en deportation (Mauthausen, Austria)
From Paris, France
Born 7/10/19

Sigal, Isaak Peysakhovich (Сигал, Исаак Пейсахович), Guards Senior Lieutenant [Гвардии Старший Лейтенант]
U.S.S.R., Red Army, 379th Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment, Military Unit / Military Post 29867
Commanding Officer – Communications
Born 1921
Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume VIII – 478 [Книги Памяти еврееввоинов, павших в боях с нацизхмом в 1941-1945 гг – Том VIII 478]

Wohlauer, Wolf Hans, T/5, 39699670, Purple Heart (in Germany)
United States Army, 8th Infantry Division, 49th Armored Infantry Battalion
Mrs. H.S. Wohlauer (wife), 1141 South Cochran Ave., Los Angeles, Ca.
Born 1914
Netherlands American Cemetery, Margraten, Holland – Plot D, Row 10, Grave 16
American Jews in World War II – 57


Second Lieutenant Norman Dubb and First Lieutenant Edward M. Rudofsky were the navigator and co-pilot of B-29 44-69752 (“T square 15“), an aircraft of the 873rd Bomb Squadron of the 498th Bomb Group (20th Air Force) which was commanded by 1 Lt. William E. Filbert.  The aircraft’s loss is covered in MACR 13761, which includes the enigmatic statement, “Aircraft AAF # 44-69752 left this station at approximately 2100, 1 April 1945 on a bombing mission over Tokyo, Japan.  At time of this report the aircraft is 12 hours overdue.  No information whatsoever has been received from the aircraft since its departure.”

The aircraft disappeared during a mission to Tokyo, having been shot down by anti-aircraft fire.   There were no survivors from the crew of 11.  Information about the bomber’s loss (and similar records concerning other American warplanes lost over Japan) can be found at aomorikuushuu.jpn.org

The crew was buried in collective grave 322 (seen below, in an image by KCK, in Section 81 of the Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, on January 19, 1949.

Dubb, Norman, 2 Lt., 0-702155, Navigator
Mr. and Mrs. Henry and Lillian (Kasan) Dubb (parents), 4642 Saint Elmo Drive, Los Angeles, Ca.
Born in Maryland, in 1919
American Jews in World War II – Not listed

Rudofsky, Edward M., 1 Lt., 0-795484, Co-Pilot, Air Medal, Purple Heart
Mrs. Louise G. Rudofsky (wife), 309 East 34th St., Savannah, Ga.
Casualty List 5/14/45
American Jews in World War II – 89

This photo of Lt. Rudofsky, provided by Louis Zacks, appears in his biographical profile at the National World War II Memorial website.


Prisoner of War

Spivack, Maxwell, PFC, 12110922 (in Germany)
United States Army, 9th Infantry Division, 60th Infantry Regiment
POW – Camp unknown
Mr. Martin Spivack (father), 241 East Moshulu Parkway, Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1924
Casualty List 5/27/45
American Jews in World War II – 452

Wounded in Action

Davis, Jack, Sgt., C/125033
Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps
Mr. Leon Davis (father), 3259 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Born Vancouver, British Columbia, 10/12/18
Canadian Jews in World War II – Part II: Casualties – 92

, Julius, T/5, 33177105 (at Kerama, Okinawa)

United States Army
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob and Rose Goldstein (parents), 2630 S. 9th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1912
The Jewish Exponent 7/6/45
Philadelphia Record 6/26/45
Philadelphia Bulletin 6/26/45
American Jews in World War II – 525

Panitz, Irwin Arthur, S 1C, 7121120, Seaman, Purple Heart
United States Navy, USS Henrico
WIA; Experienced multiple burns; Returned to duty
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Jack and Cecile Panitz (parents), 1432 Crotona Park East, Bronx, N.Y.
Born 1925
American Jews in World War II – 403

Weiss, Leonard, Sgt., 33085239, Purple Heart (in Germany)
United States Army
Mrs. Betty E. Weiss (wife), 632 S. 55th St. (or) 5127 Whitaker Ave., Philadelphia, Pa.
Born 1920
The Jewish Exponent 5/4/45
Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Record 4/28/45
American Jews in World War II – 559

Wolf, Robert Raymond, Pvt., 563969, Purple Heart
United States Marine Corps, 3rd Marine Division, 9th Marine Regiment, 3rd Battalion, K Company
Mr. John Wolf (father), 11 Vreeland Ave., Passaic, N.J.
American Jews in World War II – 259

Other Incidents

Returned after aircraft landed in Soviet-controlled territory…

Robin, William H., S/Sgt., 14132611, Flight Engineer, Air Medal
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 454th Bomb Group, 739th Bomb Squadron
Aircraft landed at Pecs, Hungary; Presumably returned, with fellow crewmen, to American forces via Soviet Military
Mrs. Rose Robin (mother), 241 Cherokee Road, Nashville, Tn.
MACR 13475; Aircraft: B-24L 44-49927; Pilot: F/O George R. Buitts; 10 crewmen – all survived
American Jews in World War II – 568

According to a massive database compiled by the Soviet Transports research team (specifically, “Western-Built Aircraft in Soviet & Eastern Block Service” (March 2017)) intact B-24L 44-49927 eventually – (unsurprisingly!) – passed into Soviet Air Force service.  The plane probably served in the 25th Aviation Regiment – Long Range (25 АП ДД) at Balbasovo (an air base in Belarus) which was redesignated the 203rd Aviation Regiment (203 АП) in December of 1945.  

Last known sighting of a still-missing fighter pilot…

Rosenbloom, Sidney Eugene, 2 Lt., 0-2059842, Fighter Pilot, Air Medal
United States Army Air Force, 15th Air Force, 325th Fighter Group, 318th Fighter Squadron
Mrs. Harriet Selma (Silverstein) Rosenbloom (wife)
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Joshua and Bessie Rosenbloom (parents), 1235 North Hanley, St. Louis, Mo.
Born Saint Louis, Mo., 8/10/22; Died 9/18/11
Name appears in MACR 13641
Made last known sighting of Capt. Harry A. Parker (son of Mrs. Hannah (Craig) Parker, 8 Grove St., Milford, N.H.), who was flying P-51D 44-14462, “Albemarie Pippin”, during a strafing mission to vicinity of Vienna, Austria
Capt. Parker is listed on the Tablets of the Missing at Florence American Cemetery, Florence, Italy.  He received the Silver Star and Purple Heart
American Jews in World War II – 215


Chiche, F., Livre d’Or et de Sang – Les Juifs au Combat: Citations 1939-1945 de Bir-Hakeim au Rhin et Danube, Edition Brith Israel, Tunis, Tunisie, 1946

Dublin, Louis I., and Kohs, Samuel C., American Jews in World War II – The Story of 550,000 Fighters for Freedom, The Dial Press, New York, N.Y., 1947

Finkelstein, Noah and Sadie G., Memorial Album – Dedicated to the Boys of the 20th Air Force, Noah and Sadie G. Finkelstein, Los Angeles, Ca., 1951

Morris, Henry, Edited by Gerald Smith, We Will Remember Them – A Record of the Jews Who Died in the Armed Forces of the Crown 1939 – 1945, Brassey’s, United Kingdom, London, 1989

Canadian Jews in World War II
– Part II: Casualties, Canadian Jewish Congress, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1948

Memorial Book of Jewish Soldiers Who Died in Battles Against Nazism – 1941-1945 – Volume VII
[Surnames beginning with all letters of the alphabet], Maryanovskiy, M.F., Pivovarova, N.A., Sobol, I.S. (editors), Union of Jewish War Invalids and Veterans, Moscow, Russia, 2002

South African Jews in World War Two, Eagle Press, South African Jewish Board of Deputies, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1950